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## Statistical Application in R & Python: Negative Binomial Distribution

Negative binomial distribution is a special case of Binomial distribution. If you haven’t checked the Exponential Distribution, then read through the Statistical Application in R & Python: EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION.

It is important to know that the Negative Binomial distribution could be of two different types, i.e. – Type 1 and Type 2. In many ways, it could be seen as a generalization of the geometric distribution. The Negative Binomial Distribution essentially operates on the same principals as the binomial distribution but the objective of the former is to model for the success of an event happening in “n” number of trials. Here it is worth observing that the Geometric distribution models for the first success whereas a Negative Binomial distribution models for the Kth

This is explained below.

Type 1 Binomial distribution  aims to model the trails up to and including the “kth success” in “n number of trials”. To give a simple example, imagine you are asked to predict the probability that the fourth person to hear a gossip will believe that! This kind of prediction could be made using the negative binomial type 1 distribution.

Conversely, Type 2 Binomial distribution is used to model the number of failures before the “kth success”. To give an example, imagine you are asked about how many penalty kicks it will take before a goal is scored by a particular football player. This could be modeled using a negative binomial type 2 distribution, which might be pretty tricky or almost impossible with any other methods.

The probability distribution function is given below:

In the next section, we will take you through its practical application in Python and R.

#### Application:

Mr. Singh works in an Insurance Company where his target is to sale a minimum of five policies in a day. On a particular day, he had already sold 2 policies after numerous attempts. The probability of sales on each policy is 0.6. Now, if the policies may be considered as independent Bernoulli trials, then:

1. What is the probability that he has exactly 4 failed attempts before his 3rd successful sales of the day?
2. What is the probability that he was fewer than 4 failed attempts before his 3rd successful sales of the day?

So, the number of sales = 3.

The probability of failed attempts is 4.

The success of each sale is 0.6.

#### Calculate Negative Binomial Distribution in R:

In R, we calculate negative binomial distribution to find the probability of insurance sales. Thus, we get,

1. The probability that he has exactly 4 failed attempts before his 3rd successful sales are 8.29%.
2. The probability that he has fewer than 4 failed attempts before his 3rd successful sales is 82.08%.

Hence, we can see that chances are quite high that Mr. Singh will succeed in making a sale after 4 failed attempts.

#### Calculate Negative Binomial Distribution in Python:

In Python, we get the same results as above.

#### Conclusion:

Negative Binomial distribution is the discrete probability distribution that is actually used for calculating the success and failure of any observation. When applied to real-world problems, the outcomes of the successes and failures may or may not be the outcomes we ordinarily view as good and bad, respectively.

Suppose we used the negative binomial distribution to model the number of days a certain machine works before it breaks down. In this case, “success” would be the days that the machine worked properly, whereas the day when the machine breaks down would be a “failure”. Another example would be, if we used the negative binomial distribution to model the number of attempts an athlete makes on goal before scoring r goals, though, then each unsuccessful attempt would be a “success”, and scoring a goal would be “failure”.

This blog will surely aid in developing a better understanding of how negative binomial distribution works in practice. If you have any comments please leave them below. Besides, if you are interested in catching up with the cutting edge technologies, then reach the premium training institute of Data Science and Machine Learning leading the market with the top-notch Machine Learning course in India.

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## Artificial Intelligence Jobs: Data Science and Beyond!

Artificial Intelligence is the latest technology that the industry of computer science has been working on for quite some time now. Though it has not yet been possible to materialize the high-end AIs, weak/narrow Artificial Intelligence which includes, Siri, Cortana, Bixby, Tesla, are the ones that have grown to be simply inseparable in our daily lives. This is simultaneous with the widespread of the Artificial intelligence Course in Delhiwhich is encouraging more and more students to explore new-age technologies.

With the extensive research and tests carried out on all these new technologies to implement them in the modern industries; AI is yielding more jobs than ever before.

#### Jobs Springing from the Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence and data always go hand in hand because it is the data that helps us gain insight into the results. Thus, it is not surprising that the professionals utter AI and data at the same instant.

When Amazon mentioned of up-skilling 100,000 employees from the United States to make them ready for the technology of the age, they also claimed that the machines with the ability to deal with data are responsible for most of these jobs.

There have been huge changes in the figures since then, with the data mapping scientists increased to 832%, the total data scientists jumped by 505%, and the total business analysts hiked about 160%. Besides, there is also a marked demand for the other employees, who are from a non-technological background. However, most of these are associated with Artificial Intelligence, like logistics coordinator and executive; process improvement manager; transportation specialist and so on.

Thus, in contradiction to our surmises that AI and its likes will throttle our jobs and crumble every other our opportunities of the same are turning out to be false for good!

#### Drawing to a Close

Whether it is Machine Learning, Data Science or Artificial Intelligence, we are noticing a rapid progress and can easily count on a better future rich with technology. However, with the increasing hardware, software and advanced computing, the need to grasp the pacing technology thoroughly is becoming predominant. Thus, Machine Learning Using PythonNeural Network Machine Learning Python and Data Science Courses in Gurgaon are rising in demand to meet the need of the mass. However, you should always go for the best Artificial Intelligence Training Institute in Gurgaon to imbibe a wholesome knowledge of the subject.

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## How to Structure Python Programs? An Extensive Guide

Python is an extremely readable and versatile high-level programming language. It supports both Object-oriented programming as well as Functional programming. It is generally referred to as an interpreted language which means that each line of code is executed one by one and if the interpreter finds an error it stops proceeding further and gives an error message to the user. This makes Python a widely regarded language, fueling Machine Learning Using Python, Text Mining with Python course and more. Furthermore, with such a high-end programming language, Python for data analysis looks ahead for a bright future.

#### In the Structure of Python

Computer languages have a structure just like human languages. Therefore, even in Python, we have comments, variables, literals, operators, delimiters, and keywords.

To understand the program structure of Python we will look at the following in this article: –

1. Python Statement
• Simple Statement
• Compound Statement
2. Multiple Statements Per Line
3. Line Continuation
• Implicit Line Continuation
• Explicit Line Continuation
5. Whitespace
6. Indentation
7. Conclusion

#### Python Statement

A statement in Python is a logical instruction that the interpreter reads and executes. The interpreter executes statements sequentially, one by one. In Python, it could be an assignment statement or an expression. The statements are mostly written in such a style so that each statement occupies a single line.

##### Simple Statements

A simple statement is one that contains no other statements. Therefore, it lies entirely within a logical line. An assignment is a simple statement that assigns values to variables, unlike in some other languages; an assignment in Python is a statement and can never be part of an expression.

##### Compound Statement

A compound statement contains one or more other statements and controls their execution. A compound statement has one or more clauses, aligned at the same indentation. Each clause has a header starting with a keyword and ending with a colon (:), followed by a body, which is a sequence of one or more statements. When the body contains multiple statements, also known as blocks, these statements should be placed on separate logical lines after the header line, indented four spaces rightward.

#### Multiple Statements per Line

Although it is not considered good practice multiple statements can be written in a single line in Python. It is advisable to avoid multiple statements in a single line. But, if it is necessary, then it can be written with the help of semicolon (;) as the terminator of every statement.

#### Line Continuation

In Python there might be some cases when a single statement is too long that does not fit the browser window and one needs to scroll the screen left or right. This can be a case of assignment statement with many terms or defining a lengthy nested list. These long statements of code are generally considered a poor practice.

To maintain readability, it is advisable to split the long statement into parts across several lines. In Python code, a statement can be continued from one line to the next in two different ways: implicit and explicit line continuation.

##### Implicit Line Continuation

This is the more straightforward technique for line continuation. In implicit line continuation, one can split a statement using either of parentheses ( ), brackets [ ] and braces { }. Here, one needs to enclose the target statement using the mentioned construct.

##### Explicit Line Continuation

In cases where implicit line continuation is not readily available or practicable, there is another option. This is referred to as an explicit line continuation or explicit line joining. Here, one can right away use the line continuation character (\) to split a statement into multiple lines.

A comment is text that doesn’t affect the outcome of a code; it is just a piece of text to let someone know what you have done in a program or what is being done in a block of code. This is especially helpful when a code is written and someone is analyzing it for bug fixing or making a change in logic, by reading a comment one can understand the purpose of code much faster than by just going through the actual code.

There are two types of comments in Python.
1. Single line comment
2. Multiple line comment

#### Single line comment

In python, one can use # special character to start the comment.

#### Multi-line comment

To have a multi-line comment in Python, one can use Triple Double Quotation at the beginning and the end of the comment.

#### Whitespace

One can improve the readability of the code with the use of whitespaces. Whitespaces are necessary for separating the keywords from the variables or other keywords. Whitespace is mostly ignored by the Python interpreter.

#### Indentation

Most of the programming languages provide indentation for better code formatting and don’t enforce to have it. However, in Python, it is mandatory to obey the indentation rules. Typically, we indent each line by four spaces (or by the same amount) in a block of code. Also for creating compound statements, the indentation will be of utmost necessity.

#### Conclusion

So, this article was all about how to structure the Python program. Here, one can learn what constitutes a valid Python statement and how to use implicit and explicit line continuation to write a statement that spans multiple lines. Furthermore, one can also learn about commenting Python code, and about the use of whitespace and indentation to enhance the overall readability.

We hope this article was helpful to y ou. If you are interested in similar blogs, stay glued to our website, and keep following all the news and updates from Dexlab Analytics.

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## Machine Learning in the Healthcare Sector

The healthcare industry is one of the most important industries when it comes to human welfare. Research analysis from the U.S. federal government actuaries say that Americans spent \$3.65 trillion on health care in 2018(report from Axios) and the Indian healthcare market is expected to reach \$ 372 billion by 2022. To reduce cost and to move towards a personalized healthcare system, the industry faces three major hurdles: –

1) Electronic record management
2) Data integration
3) Computer-aided diagnoses.

Machine learning in itself is a vast field with a wide array of tools, techniques, and frameworks that can be exploited and manipulated to cope with these challenges. In today’s time, Machine Learning Using Python is proving to be very helpful in streamlining the administrative processes in hospitals, map and treat life-threatening diseases and personalizing medical treatments.

This blog will focus primarily on the applications of Machine learning in the domain of healthcare.

#### Real-life Application of Machine learning in the Health Sector

1. MYCIN system was incepted at Stanford University. The system was developed in order to detect specific strains of bacteria that cause infections. It proposed a good therapy in 69% of the cases which was at that time better than infectious disease experts.
2. In the 1980s at the University of Pittsburgh, a diagnostic tool named INTERNIST-I was developed to diagnose symptoms of various diseases like flu, pneumonia, diabetes and more. One of the key functionalities of the INTERNIST-I was to be able to detect the problem areas. This is done with a view of being able to remove diagnostics’ likelihood.
3. AI trained by researchers from Pennsylvania has been developed recently which is capable of predicting patients who are most likely to die within a year. This is assessed based on their heart test results. This AI is capable of predicting the death of patients even if the figures look quite normal to the doctors. The researchers have trained the AI with 1.77 million electrocardiograms (ECG) results. The researchers have made two versions of this Al: one with just the ECG data and the other one with ECG data along with the age and gender of the patients.
4. P1vital’s PReDicT (Predicting Response to Depression Treatment) built on the Machine Learning algorithms aims to develop a commercially feasible way to diagnose and provide treatment of depression in clinical practice.
5. KenSci has developed machine learning algorithms to predict illnesses and their cure to enable doctors with the ability to detect specific patterns and indicators of population health risks. This comes under the purview of model disease progression.
6. Project Hanover developed by Microsoft is using Machine Learning-based technologies for multiple purposes, which includes the development of AI-based technology for cancer treatment and personalizing drug combination for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).
7. Preserving data in the health care industry has always been a daunting task. However, with the forward-looking steps in analytics-related technology, it has become more manageable over the years. The truth is that even now, a majority of the processes take a lot of time to complete.
8. Machine learning can prove to be disruptive in the medical sector by automating processes relating to data collection and collation. This is highly profitable in terms of cost-effectiveness. Newer algorithms such as Vector Machines or OCR recognition are designed to automate the task of document reading and classification with high levels of precision and accuracy.

9. PathAI’s technology uses machine learning to help pathologists make faster and more accurate diagnoses. Furthermore, it also helps in identifying patients who might benefit from a new and different type of treatments or therapies in the future.

#### To Sum Up:

As the modern technologies of Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics are tottering forth in multiple domains, there is a long path they need to walk to ensure an unflinching success. Besides, it is also important for every one of us to be accustomed to all these new-age technologies.

With an expansion of the quality Machine Learning course in India and Neural Network Machine learning Python, all the reputed institutes are joining hands together to bring in the revolution. The initial days will be slow and hard, but it is no doubt that these cutting edge technologies will transform the medical industry along with a range of other industries, making early diagnoses possible along with a reduction of the overall cost. Besides, with the introduction of successful recommender systems and other promises of personalized healthcare, coupled with systematic management of medical records, Machine Learning will surely usher in the future for good!

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## 8 Amazing Things That Artificial Intelligence Can Do

AI plays a crucial role in our everyday lives. By now, we are aware of AI’s glaring significance in our very existence. Nevertheless, you would be surprised to know that AI has already imbibed some of the skills that we, humans, possess. Ahead, we’ve 8 incredible skills that AI has learnt over the years:

Wondering how to summarize all those kilobytes of information? AI-powered SummarizeBot is the answer. Whether its books, news articles, weblinks, audio/image files or legal documents, ATS (automatic text summarization) reads everything and records the important information. Natural Language Processing (NLP), artificial intelligence, machine learning and blockchain technologies are in play here.

#### Write

Did you know that myriad news enterprises and seasoned journalists rely on AI to write? The New York Times, Reuters, Washington Post and more have turned to artificial intelligence to craft interesting reading pieces. Also, AI is expected to enhance the process of creative writing as well.  Even, it has generated a novel that was shortlisted for a prestigious award.

#### See

Machine vision is in the hype. It is implemented in different ways in today’s world, such as facilitating self-driven cars, facial recognition for payment portals, police work and more. The main concept of machine vision is to let the computers ‘visualize’ the world, analyze key data and make decisions thereafter.

#### Speak

We are fortunate enough to have Google Maps and Alexa to give us directions and respond to our queries but Google Duplex takes it to a whole new level, courtesy AI. With the help of this robust technology, Duplex can schedule appointments and finish tasks on phone in a very interactive language. It can also respond perfectly to human behaviors.

#### Hear and Understand

Detecting gunshots and alerting to-the-purpose agencies is one of the greatest things achieved by AI. It means AI can hear and understand sound. It is very well evident in how digital voice assistants respond to your queries regarding weather or a day’s agenda. Working professionals simply love the efficiency, accuracy and convenience of automated meeting minutes provided by AI.

#### Touch

With the help of cameras and sensors, a robot can identify and handpick ‘supermarket ripe’ blueberries and put them in your basket. The creator of the robot even asserts that it is designed to pick one blueberry every 10 seconds for 24 hours a day!

#### Smell

A team of AI researchers are at present developing robust AI models that can detect illnesses – simply by smelling. The model is designed in such a way so that it can notice chemicals, known as aldehydes that cause human stress and diseases, including diabetes, cancer and brain injuries. AI bots can even identify other caustic chemicals or gas leaks. Of late, IBM is using AI to formulate new perfumes.

#### Perceive Emotions

Today, AI tools can observe human emotions and track them down as one watches videos. Artificial emotional intelligence can collect meaningful data from a person’s facial expressions or body language, analyze it to determine what emotion he/she is likely to express and then ascertain an action base on that detail.

For more such interesting updates, follow DexLab Analytics. Our Machine Learning Using Python course is a bestseller. To know more, click here <www.dexlabanalytics.com>

This post originally appeared onwww.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2019/11/11/13-mind-blowing-things-artificial-intelligence-can-already-do-today/#2777e5ec6502

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## Machine Learning Jobs in 2019: Freezing your own Job

Machine Learning surely needs no introduction. Joining forces with Data Science and Big Data, Machine Learning is one of the principal technologies, which is carving the future for us. From self-propelled cars to voice assistants, to surgical robots, Artificial Intelligence is already amongst us.

Besides, with this cutting-edge technology, marketing is also witnessing a fresh bloom, irrespective of the field you are working on. Thus, it is obvious that the career opportunities have quickly and radically shifted in the way of the candidates who are well-versed with Machine Learning platforms and languages. If you are also looking forward to shooting your career up, the premium Machine Learning course in India is the place you should reach now!

### Learning Machine Learning is No More a Pain Now!

Whether you are a professional or a fresher planning your way to be successful as a Machine Learning professional, you must ensure that you are updated. Besides, you should also be careful that you have certain skills in your grip that you can work on!

However, if you are not aware of them still, here are the skills that you need to focus on to rest assured:

#### Programming Languages

As you speak English and/or your regional languages accepted to your society in order to communicate comprehensibly, you also need to be well-versed with the languages specific to Machine Learning.

In a nutshell, R programming certification and Machine Learning Using Python are undoubtedly the most significant ones when it comes to Machine Learning.

#### Data Modeling

If you believe that you can already boast of considerable knowledge of R & Python, then you shall extend your knowledge a bit more towards the advanced methods of analysis. Brief know how of the coding structures, Data Modeling and Data Visualization will help you steer your career forwards.

#### Statistics and Probability

If you are seeking to make a career out of Machine Learning, it is important to note that you should have a good grip of statistics and probability. Now, with the thorough courses of Python for Data Analysis along with extensive knowledge of statistics and probability from Dexlab Analytics, it will be easier than ever.

Besides all these, you also need to grasp significant insights into the improved algorithms and clustering methods.

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## A Nifty Guide to Initiate AIOps in 2019

AIOps (artificial intelligence for IT operations) is the buzz word of the 21st century.

In this digitally-charged world, AIOps platforms are the key. They fuse ML and big data functionalities to boost and partly replace primary IT operations’ programs, including event correlation and analysis, performance monitoring and IT service automation and management.

In simple terms, AIOps is the combined application of data science and machine learning to help mitigate IT operations-related challenges and find faster insights. It fixes high-severity outages in a jiffy.

The main objective of revolutionary AIOps platforms is to ingest and analyze the aggravating volume, variety and velocity of data and deliver it in a useful manner.

IT bigwigs are excited about the prospects of applying AI and ML to IT operations.

Gartner expects that big enterprises’ usage of AIOps and other monitoring tools and applications will rise from 5% in 2018 to 30% in 2023. The long-term impact of AIOps on IT operations is predicted to be transformative.

Fortunately, AI capabilities are making headway, and more real-time solutions are being formulated and made available each day.

Read on to know how to get started with AIOPs:

#### Be prepared

First and foremost, you have to familiarize yourself with all the ML and AI capabilities and vocabulary. It doesn’t matter if you are gearing up for an AIOps project or not. Capabilities and priorities change; so be ready to implement the platform anytime soon.

#### Select the first few test cases carefully

Small and steady wins the race. The same phrase applies to transformation initiatives. They start small, seize knowledge and iterate from there. Imbibe the same approach for AIOps success.

#### Enhance your proficiency

Decode the intricacies of AIOps amongst your colleagues by displaying simple techniques. Ascertain your skills and identify the loopholes, then devise a relevant plan to fill up those gaps in-between.

#### Feel free to experiment

Although a majority of AIOps platforms are complex and costly, there is a substantial number of open-source and relatively low-cost ML software available in the market that lets you evaluate the efficacy of AIOps and ML applications and their uses.

#### Look beyond IT

Don’t forget to leverage all kinds of data analytics resources available in your organization. Data management is the cornerstone of AIOps. Most of the teams are already skilled in it. Statistical analytics and business analysis are key components of contemporary business frameworks, and many techniques traverse public domains.

#### Standardize and modernize, as and when required

Prepare your work infrastructure to implement a robust AIOps adoption by embracing secure automation architecture, immutable infrastructure patterns and infrastructure as code (IaC).

Interested in learning more about Machine Learning Using Python? Feel free to reach us at DexLab Analytics. We’re a premier learning platform specialized in offering in-demand skill training courses to the interested candidates.

The blog has been sourced from ― www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/how-to-get-started-with-aiops

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## Take a Deep Look on How Machine Learning Boosts Business Growth!

Machine Learning is the technology of the future and the rise of it is, well, shocking! Numerous businesses have already started adopting Machine Learning into their business strategy which is ultimately culminating towards their growth. You can also get the most of Machine Learning by going for the best Machine Learning course in India without wasting hours on the internet.

This new and improving technology is showing marked results in making a particular business more efficient, enhancing customer relationships and driving more sales than ever. You can get right on to Machine Learning Significantly Aids in Improving the Business Performance: Learn the Hows and learn about Machine Learning and its rising curve.

Here we have decided to discuss in details about the ways how Machine Learning is helping business touch great heights:

#### Natural Language

One of the major setbacks in the industry of computer science was the inability of computers to comprehend our natural language or the way we speak in our everyday life. This is slowly changing with the rapid growth and considerable research and development on Machine Learning.

It looks like we have come a long way from the crude search terms that we used to generate the results that we wanted. The AI-driven programs of now, with the help of Machine Learning, can figure out the essence of our conversations and also capitalizing largely on the nuances of our language. Most importantly, they learn from past experiences, which is highly progressive.

#### Logistics

The retail industry and that of logistics are largely relying on Python for Data Analysis and this in turn, is making them future-proof.

Retail giants like Amazon are encouraging the use of Machine Learning to sharpen the efficiency of their company with new features and technology like “anticipatory shopping” protocol. Retail analytics using Python is becoming formidable.

Even in the field of logistics, the inclusion of Machine Learning is proving a boon!

#### Manufacturing Industry

Innumerable manufacturing companies are adopting the budding technology of Machine Learning and utilizing it in almost every stage of production, simply because the AI-driven technology reduces unnecessary expenses.

Companies like Seebo, are taking up Python seriously to build accurate data analytics software. Moreover, machine learning is estimated to cut down on the delivery times by 30% and surprisingly save fuel by 12%. According to the reports, the programs fed on AI would even reduce the maintenance costs by 20 – 30%.

#### Consumer Data

We have already seen a world of data collection which has been on a rise for years. Now, finally, with the rise of machine learning, the companies are looking forward to making some use of all these data that they have accumulated. In the coming years, we will see AI improving powered by Machine Learning to make the world productive and smart all the more.

You can take a look at A DISCUSSION ABOUT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: KNOWING AI CLOSELY if you are interested in AI. Stay glued to our website for more updates and information from the world of technology!

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## Application of Mode using R and Python

Mode, for a given set of observations, is that value of the variable, where the variable occurs with the maximum or the highest frequency.

This blog is in continuation with STATISTICAL APPLICATION IN R & PYTHON: CHAPTER 1 – MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY. However, here we will elucidate the Mode and its application using Python and R.

Mode is the most typical or prevalent value, and at times, represents the true characteristics of the distribution as a measure of central tendency.

#### Application:

##### 245

[Note: Here we assume total=245 when we calculate Mean from the same data]

#### Calculate Mode in R:

Calculate mode in R from the data, i.e. the most frequent number in the data is 51.

The number 51 repeats itself in 5, 7 and 8 phone calls respectively.

#### Calculate Median in Python:

First, make a data frame for the data.

Now, calculate the mode from the data frame.

Calculate mode in Python from the data, i.e. the most frequent number in the data is 51.

The number 51 repeats itself in 5, 7 and 8 phone calls respectively.

Mode is used in business, because it is most likely to occur. Meteorological forecasts are, in fact, based on mode calculations.

The modal wage of a group of the workers is the wages which the largest numbers of workers receive, and as such, this wage may be considered as the representative wage of the group.

In this particular data set we use the mode function to know the occurrence of the highest number of phone calls.

It will thus, help the Telephone Exchange to analyze their data flawlessly.

Note – As you have already gone through this post, now, if you are interested to know about the Harmonic Mean, you can check our post on the

Dexlab Analytics is a formidable institute for Deep learning for computer vision with PythonHere, you would also find more information about courses in Python, Deep LearningMachine Learning, and Neural Networks which will come with proper certification at the end.

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