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Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Healthcare

Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Healthcare

This article, the second part of a series, is on the application of artificial intelligence in the field of healthcare. The first part of the series mapped the applications of AI and deep learning in agriculture, with an emphasis on precision farming.

 AI has been taking the world by storm and its most crucial application is to the two fields mentioned above. Its application to the field of healthcare is slowly expanding, covering fields of practice such as radiology and oncology.

Stroke Prevention

In a study published in Circulation, a researcher from the British Heart Foundation revealed that his team had trained an artificial intelligence model to read MRI scans and detect compromised blood flow to and from the heart.

And an organisation called the Combio Health Care developed a clinical support system to assist doctors in detecting the risk of strokes in incoming patients.

Brain-Computer Interfaces

Neurological conditions or trauma to the nervous system can adversely affect a patient’s motor sensibilities and his or her ability to meaningfully communicate with his or her environment, including the people around.

AI powered Brain-Computer Interfaces can restore these fundamental experiences. This technology can improve lives drastically for the estimated 5,00,000 people affected by spinal injuries annually the world over and also help out patients affected by ALS, strokes or locked-in syndrome.

Radiology

Radiological imagery obtained from x-rays or CT scanners put radiologists in danger of contracting infection through tissue samples which come in through biopsies.  AI is set to assist the next generation of radiologists to completely do away with the need for tissue samples, experts predict.

A report says “(a)rtificial intelligence is helping to enable “virtual biopsies” and advance the innovative field of radiomics, which focuses on harnessing image-based algorithms to characterize the phenotypes and genetic properties of tumors.”

Cancer Treatment

One reason why AI, has made immense advancements in the field of medical oncology is the vast amount of data generated during cancer treatment.

Machine learning algorithms and their ability to study and synthesize highly complex datasets may be able to shed light on new options for targeting therapies to a patient’s unique genetic profile.

Developing countries

Most developing counties suffer from health care systems working on shoe-string budgets with a lack of critical healthcare providers and technicians. AI-powered machines can help plug the deficit of expert professionals.

For example, AI imaging tools can study chest x-rays for signs of diseases like tuberculosis, with an impressive rate of accuracy comparable to human beings. However, algorithm developers must bear in mind the fact that “(t)he course of a disease and population affected by the disease may look very different in India than in the US, for example,” the report says. So an algorithm based on a single ethnic populace might not work for another.

Conclusion

It is no surprise then that developing countries like India are even more enthusiastic about adopting deep learning courses in Delhi and machine learning and artificial intelligence sciences in the healthcare sector. Machine Learning courses in India are coming up everywhere and it is important to note that DexLab Analytics is one of the leading artificial intelligence training institute in Gurgaon. Do visit the website today.


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Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Agriculture

Applications of Artificial Intelligence: Agriculture

This article, the first part of a series, is on the application of artificial intelligence in agriculture. Popular applications of AI in agriculture can be sectioned off into three aspects – AI powered robots, computer vision and seasonal forecasting.

Robots

Firstly, companies are now gradually adopting AI powered machines to automate agricultural tasks such as harvesting larger volumes of crops faster than human workers. For instance, companies are using robots to remove weeds and unwanted plants from fields.

Computer Vision

Secondly, companies are using computer vision and deep learning algorithms to process and study crop and soil health. For instance, farmers are using unmanned drones to survey their lands in real time to identify problem areas and areas of potential improvement. Farms can be monitored frequently using these machines than they can be with farmers doing so on foot.

Seasonal Forecasting

Thirdly, AI is used to track and predict environmental impacts such as weather changes. “Seasonal forecasting is particularly valuable for small farms in developing countries as their data and knowledge can be limited. Keeping these small farms operational and growing bountiful yields is important as these small farms produce 70% of the world’s crops,” says a report .

The India story

In India, for instance, farmers are gradually working with technology to predict weather patterns and crop yield. Since 2016, Microsoft and a non-profit have together developed an AI sowing application which is used to guide farmers on when to sow seeds based on a study of weather patterns, local crop yield and rainfall.

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In the year 2017, the pilot project was broadened to encompass over 3,000 farmers in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and it was found that those farmers who received the AI-sowing app advisory text messages benefitted wherein they reported 10–30% higher yields per hectare.

Chatbots

Moreover, farmers across the world have begun to turn to chatbots for assistance and help, getting answers to a variety of questions and queries regarding specific farm problems.

Precision Farming

Research predicts the precision agriculture market to touch $12.9 billion by 2027. Precision agriculture or farming, also called site-specific crop management or satellite farming, is a concept of farm management that utilizes information technology to ensure optimum health and productivity of crops.

With this increase in the volume of satellite farming, there is bound to be an increase in the demand for sophisticated data-analysis solutions. One such solution has been developed by the University of Illinois. The system developed aims to “efficiently and accurately process precision agricultural data.”

A professor of the University says, “We developed methodology using deep learning to generate yield predictions…”

Conclusion

The application of artificial intelligence to analyze data from precision agriculture is a nascent development, but it is a growing one. Environment vagaries and factors like food security concerns have forced the agricultural industry to search for innovative solutions to protect and improve crop yield. Consequently, AI is steadily emerging as the game changer in the industry’s technological evolution.

It is no surprise then that AI training institutes are mushrooming all across the world, especially in India. For the best artificial intelligence certification in Delhi NCR, do check out the DexLab Analytics site today.


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AI joins the fight against Cancer

AI joins the fight against Cancer

Cancer is the emperor of all maladies. Finding a cure to it is one of the biggest challenges in the world of medicine. More and more men and women, one in five men and one in six women worldwide likely to be afflicted, are falling prey to the malady. It is something that has spurred on the fight against the disease even more intensely. AI and machine learning has increased the scope of groundbreaking research in the field and it is worth knowing a little about.

One reason why AI, which has made inroads into numerous sectors of the economy, has made immense advancements in the field of medical oncology is the vast amount of data generated during cancer treatment. With the assistance of AI, say scientists, this vast trove of data can be mined and worked to improve methods of diagnosis and preventive cures and treatments.

Detection of Cancer

Machine learning can lead to early detection and timely treatment in many cases. Because cancer is treated in stages, unlike other diseases, machine learning can come in handy when it comes to detection of precancerous lesions in tissues.

AI utilizing tools can assist radiologists in graphically and visually studying images by revealing suspicious lesions. This process not only reduces the work load of radiologists but it also makes possible the detection of miniscule lesions which could otherwise be overlooked.

Detection of Breast Cancer

“DeepMind and Google Health collaborated to develop a new AI system that helps in detecting breast cancer accurately at a nascent stage. Being the most common cancer in women, breast cancer, has seen an alarming rise over the past few years. Though early detection can improve a patient’s prognosis significantly, mammography, which is the best screening test currently available, is not entirely error-proof”, says a report.

To correct this, researchers at DeepMind and Google Health designed an algorithm on mammogram images and noticed AI systems reduced the recurrence of errors. They discovered that AI systems functioned better than human radiologists. A few startups in India are also laboring in the arena of cancer detection.

Predicting Cancer Evolution

Besides detection, AI is useful in the treatment of cancer as well. It is critical to the survival of patients in that it is used to predict growth and evolution of cancers which could help doctors prepare a treatment plan and save lives.

Identifying Effective Treatments

AI can play a significant role in the overall treatment of the patient, especially precision medicine which is the administering of personalized medicine from a pool of generic medication beneficial to the patient. AI can also be used to design new drugs.

Thus, AI has created a huge potential for changing the mode of treatment of cancer patients. According to the report, Exscientia is the first company, globally, to have overtaken conventional drug designing processes by automating the whole process using AI. Another company is trying to do the same in Bangalore.

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It is no surprise then that AI is being even more widely adopted across sectors of healthcare and medicine. More and more professionals, the world over, are enrolling in courses teaching AI, deep learning and machine learning. For the best such institute in India, or for the best artificial intelligence training institute in Gurgaon, do not forget to visit the DexLab website today.

 

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How AI and Deep Learning Helps In Weather Forecasting

 

How AI and Deep Learning Helps In Weather Forecasting

The world’s fight against extreme weather conditions and climate change is at the forefront of all discussions and debates on the environment. In fact, climate change is the biggest concern we are faced with today, and studying the climate has increasingly become the primary preoccupation of scientists and researchers. They have received a shot in the arm with the increase in the scope of artificial intelligence and deep learning in predicting weather patterns.

Take for instance the super cyclone Amphan that has ravaged West Bengal and Orissa. Had it not been for weather forecasting techniques, meteorologists would never had predicted the severity of the cyclone and the precautionary evacuation of thousands of people from coastal areas would not have been taken, leading to massive loss of lives. This is where the importance of weather forecasting lies.

Digitizing the prediction model

Traditionally, weather forecasting depends on a combination of observations of the current state of the weather and data sets from previous observations. Meteorologists prepare weather forecasts collecting a wealth of data and running it through prediction models. These sets of data come from hundreds of observations like temperature, wind speed, and precipitation produced by weather stations and satellites across the globe. Due to the digitization of these weather models, accuracy has improved much more than it was a few decades ago. And with the recent introduction of machine learning, forecasting has become an even more accurate and exact science.

Machine Learning

Machine learning can be utilized to make comparisons between historical weather forecasts and observations in real time. Also, machine learning can be used to make models account for inaccuracies in predictions, like overestimated rainfall.

At weather forecast institutions, prediction models use gradient boosting that is a machine learning technique for building predictive models. This is used to correct any errors that come into play with traditional weather forecasting.

Deep Learning

Machine Learning and Deep Learning are increasingly being used for nowcasting, a model of forecasting in the real time, traditionally within a two-hour time span. It provides precipitation forecasts by the minute. With deep learning, a meteorologist can anywhere in the vicinity of a weather satellite (which runs on deep learning technology) use nowcasting rather than just those who live near radar stations (which are used in traditional forecasting).

Extreme Weather Events

Deep learning is being used not only for predicting usual weather patterns, it is being used to predict extreme weather conditions as well. Rice University engineers have designed a deep learning computer system that has trained itself to predict, in accurate terms, extreme weather conditions like heat waves or cold waves. The computer system can do so up to five days in advance. And the most fascinating part is it uses the least information about current weather conditions to make predictions.

This system could effectively guide NWP (numerical weather prediction) that currently does not have the ability to predict extreme weather conditions like heat waves. And it could be a super cheap way to do so as well.

According to sciencedaily.com, with further development, the system could serve as an early warning system for weather forecasters, and as a tool for learning more about the atmospheric conditions that lead to extreme weather, said Rice’s Pedram Hassanzadeh, co-author of a study about the system published online in the American Geophysical Union’s Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems.

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Thus, it is no surprise then that machine learning and deep learning is being widely adopted the world over. In India, is it being taken up as a form of study and training in metropolitans like Delhi and Gurgaon. For the best Machine Learning course in Delhi and deep learning course in delhi, check out the DexLab Analytics website today.

 

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Budget 2020 Focuses on Artificial Intelligence in a Bid to Build Digital India

Budget 2020 Focuses on Artificial Intelligence in a Bid to Build Digital India

The Indian technology industry has welcomed the 2020 budget for its outreach to the sector, specially the Rs 8000 crore mission for the next five years on Quantum Computing. The budget has been praised in general for its noteworthy allocation of funds for farm, infrastructure and healthcare to revive growth across sectors in the country.

According to an Economic Times report, Debjani Ghosh, President, NASSCOM, reacting to the budget, said, “Budget 2020 and the finance minister’s speech has well-articulated India’s vision on not just being a leading provider of digital solutions, but one where technology is the bedrock of development and growth’.

Industry insiders lauded the budget for the allocation on Quantum Computing, the policy outline for the private sector to construct data center parks and the abolition of the Dividend Distribution Tax. The abolition of the Tax had been a long standing demand of the industry and the move has been welcomed. The building of data parks will help retain data within the country, industry experts said.

Moreover, while announcing the budget this year, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman spelt out the government’s intentions of utilizing, more intensely, technology, specially artificial intelligence and machine learning.

These will be used for the purposes of monitoring economic data, preventing diseases and facilitating healthcare systems under Ayushman Bharat, guarding intellectual property rights, enhancing and improving agricultural systems and sea ports and delivery of government services.

Governments the world over have been emphasising the deployment of AI for digital governance and research. As per reports, the US government plans and intends to spend nearly 1 billion US dollars on AI-related research and development this year.

The Indian government has also planned to make available digital connectivity to citizens at the gram panchayat level under its ambitious Digital India drive with a focus on carrying forward the benefits and advantages of a digital revolution by utilizing technology to the fullest. One lakh gram panchayats will be covered under the Rs 6000 crore Bharat Net project wherein fibre connectivity will be made available to households.

“While the government had previously set up a national portal for AI research and development, in the latest announcement, the government has continued to offer its support for tech advancements. We appreciate the government’s emphasis on promoting cutting-edge technologies in India,” Atul Rai, co-founder & CEO of Staqu said in a statement, according to a report by Live Mint.

The Finance Minister also put forward a plan to give a fillip to manufacturing of mobiles, semiconductor packaging and electronic equipment. She iterated that there will be a cost-benefit to electronics manufacturing in India.

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Thus, this article shows how much the government of India is concentrating on artificial intelligence and machine learning with a push towards digital governance. It shows that the government is recognising the need to capitalise on the “new oil” that is data, as the saying goes. So it is no surprise then that more and more professionals are opting for Machine Learning Course in India and artificial intelligence certification in delhi ncr. DexLab Analytics focuses on these technologies to train and skill professionals who want to increase their knowledge base in a digital first economy.

 

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8 Skills a Python Programmer Should Master

8 Skills a Python Programmer Should Master

Python has become the lingua franca of the computing world. It has come to become the most sought after programming language for deep learning, machine learning and artificial intelligence. It is a favourite with programmers because it is easy to understand and learn and it achieves a lot more in terms of productivity as compared to other languages.

Python is a dynamic, high-level, general-purpose programming language that is useful for developing desktop, web and mobile applications that can also be used for complex scientific and numeric applications, data science, AI etc. Python focuses a lot on code readability.

From web and game development to machine learning, from AI to scientific computing and academic research, Data science and analysis, python is regarded as the real deal. Python is useful in domains like finance, social media, biotech etc. Developing large software applications in Python is also simpler due to its large amount of available libraries.

The Python developer usually deals with backend components, apps connection with third-party web services and giving support to frontend developers in web applications. Of course, one might create applications with use of different languages but pretty often Python is the language chosen for it – and there are several reasons for that.

In this article, we will walk through a structured approach to top 8 skills required to become a Python Developer. These skills are:

  • Core Python
  • Good grasp of Web Frameworks
  • Front-End Technologies
  • Data Science
  • Machine Learning and AI
  • Python Libraries
  • Multi-Process Architecture
  • Communication Skills

Core Python

This is the foundation of any Python developer. If one wants to achieve success in this career, he/she needs to understand the core python concepts. These include the following:

  • Iterators
  • Data Structures
  • Generators
  • OOPs concepts
  • Exception Handling
  • File handling concepts
  • Variables and data types

However, learning the core language (as mentioned above) is only the first step in mastering this language and becoming a successful Python developer.

Good grasp of Web Frameworks

By automating the implementation of redundant tasks, frameworks cut development time and enable developers to focus greatly on application logic rather than routine elements.

Because it is one of the leading programming languages, there is no scarcity of frameworks for Python. Different frameworks have their own set of advantages and issues. Hence, the selection needs to be made on the basis of project requirements and developer preference. There are primarily three types of Python frameworks, namely full-stack, micro-framework, and asynchronous.

A good Python web developer has incredible honing over either of the two web frameworks Django or Flask or both. Django is a high-level Python Web Framework that encourages a good, clean and pragmatic design and Flask is also widely used Python micro web framework.

Front-End Technologies (JavaScript, CSS3, HTML5)

Sometimes, Python developers must work with the frontend team to match together the server-side and the client-side. This means Python developers need a basic understanding of how the frontend works, what’s possible and what’s not, and how the application will appear.

While there is likely a UX team, SCRUM master, and project or product manager to coordinate the workflow, it’s still good to have a basic understanding of front-end tasks.

Data Science

Data science offers a world of new opportunities. Being a Python developer, there are several prerequisites you need to know starting with things you learn in high school mathematics, such as statistics, probability, etc. Some of the other parts of data science you need to understand, and use include SQL knowledge; the use of Python packages, data wrangling and data cleanup, analysis of data, and visualization of data.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (as well as Deep Learning) are constantly growing. Python is the perfect programming language which is used in all the frameworks of Machine Learning and Deep Learning. This will be a huge plus for someone if he/she knows about this domain. If someone is into data science, then definitely digging in the Machine Learning topic would be a great idea.

Python Libraries

Python libraries certainly deserve a place in every Python Developer’s toolbox. Python has a massive collection of libraries, both native and third-party libraries. With so many Python libraries out there, though, it’s no surprise that some don’t get all the attention they deserve. Plus, programmers who work exclusively in one domain don’t always know about the goodies available to them for other kinds of work.

Python libraries are extensively used in simplifying everything from file system access, database programming, and working with cloud services to building lightweight web apps, creating GUIs, and working with images, ebooks, and Word files—and much more.

Multiprocessing Architecture

Multiprocessing refers to the ability of a system to support more than one processor at the same time. Applications in a multiprocessing system are broken to smaller routines that run independently. The operating system allocates these threads to the processors improving performance of the system. As a Python-Developer one should definitely know about the MVC (Model View Controller) and MVT (Model View Template) Architecture. Once you understand the Multi-Processing Architecture you can solve issues related to the core framework etc.

Communication Skills

In best software development firms the teams are made out of amazing programmers which work together to achieve the final goal – no matter if it means to finish the project, to create a new app or maybe to help a startup. However, working in a team means that a developer has to communicate well – not only to get the stuff done but also to keep the documentation clear so others can easily read and follow the thinking path to fully understand the idea.

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Conclusion

In this write-up, we have elaborated on the top skills one needs to have to be a successful Python Developer. One must have a working knowledge of Core Python and a good grasp of Web Frameworks, Front-End Technologies, Data Science, Machine Learning and AI, Python Libraries, Multi-Process Architecture and Communication skills. Though there are a few more skills not listed in this blog, one can achieve success in developing large software applications by mastering all the above skills only.

As delineated in the article, Python is the new rage in the computing world. And it is no surprise then that more and more professionals are opting to take up courses teaching Machine learning using Python and python for data analysis.

 

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AI – A Great Opportunity For Cyber Security Solutions

AI - A Great Opportunity For Cyber Security Solutions

AI and machine learning are the new rage in the computing world. And for reasons justified. With advancement in technology, the threat to technological systems and businesses online has also advanced and become more complex.

Cyber criminals are constantly coming up with newer mechanisms to break into cyber systems for theft or disruption. Thus, the cyber security industry is in a fix over what it can do to enhance security features of existing systems. AI and Machine Learning are the answer to its woes.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning work on large sets of data, analyzing them and finding patterns in them. AI helps interpret data and make sense of it to yield solutions and ML learns up intuitively how to spot patterns in the data. The two go hand in hand and complement each other.

Cybersecurity solutions pivot on the science of finding and spotting patterns and planning the right response to these. They have the ability to tap into data and detect a set of code as malicious, even if no one has noticed it or flagged it before. Thus, it becomes complementary to AI in that it involves the cyber security software to be tutored to detect and alert the user about an anomaly or trigger an alarm if a corruption crosses the threshold without being prompted.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are used in Spam Filter Applications, Network Intrusion Detection and Prevention, Fraud detection, Credit scoring, Botnet Detection, Secure User Authentication, Cyber security Ratings and Hacking Incident Forecasting.

They are much faster than human users deploying software to detect of fight cyber attacks and they do not tire unlike their human counterparts while assessing tons of data and malicious aspects of those data. They are thus not prone to desensitization that a human user would be prone to.

Application of AI in cyber security solutions is akin to taking things up a notch higher up. Without AI, cyber security would lose the option of having the software learn by itself by merely observing sets of data and user patterns.

An AI system would develop a digital fingerprint of the user based on his habits and preferences. This would help in the event of someone other than the user trying to break into his or her system. And AI cyber security systems do this work 24X7, unlike a human user who would spend limited time scanning for malicious codes or components.

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AI and machine learning, since their inception, have transformed the world of cyber security forever. With time, both aspects of the computing world will refine and mature. It is only a matter of time before a user’s cyber security system becomes tailored to her needs.

And it is thus not surprising that more and more professionals are opting for artificial intelligence courses to equip themselves with relevant coursework. The world is moving to reap the benefits of AI intelligence. So, if you are interested in doing the same, opt for an artificial intelligence course in delhi or a Machine Learning course in India by enrolling yourself with DexLab Analytics.

 

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Artificial Intelligence and IT Operations: A new algorithm

Artificial Intelligence and IT Operations: A new algorithm

Artificial intelligence used to automate IT operations has begun being widely termed as AIOps, a new algorithm of deep learning put to use in the field of information technology to speed up businesses and response timings to incidents occurred. It is the new rage after AI itself. And, justifiably so.

Information technology is constantly in flux, changing every minute. To keep up with it, old systems will not work. What is needed for its management is smart and fast computer programs which can keep learning and re-use learnt skills with more and more operations carried out. Trends show that worldwide spending on AI systems will hit the $77.6 billion mark in 2020, three times the amount forecasted for 2018, the IDC revealed recently.

Trends show AIOps will take centre stage when it comes to problem solving and accelerating detection of incidents and remediation.  As AIOps tools mature, IT systems will be able to work on and process a larger variety of data types in a faster and better manner, enhancing performance for more specific jobs assigned to it.

AI experts in the field say AIOps will be used to enhance and increase natural language processing, analysis of the root cause of problems, detection of anomalies, and correlation and analysis of events, among other IT functions, thus giving IT operations professionals greater control over their systems.

AI technology can help improve efficiency in vital industries like healthcare and agriculture. A case in point is the development of the Chatbot which has come to contextualize and give more intuitive and human like responses to customers.

In 2020, it is expected of IT firms to introduce data-source-agnostic solutions. This new tool will be a big boost for the industry as the more varied and variegated the data fed into an AIOps platform, the greater the insights and value the algorithms can come up with. This will directly translate to mean users can determine, more accurately, issues, foresee impacts and fathom how change can affect business-critical activities.

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One drawback of the current AIOps systems are that they take a lot of time on-boarding and its takes time training company professionals in the use of the AI software as well as feeding the software with vast amounts of data and information. This is a challenge that will have to be met in the coming few years as more and more of the IT world is adopting AI in its systems.

The AIOps is being used increasingly in Indian IT firms as well, they recognizing the need to embrace the AI juggernaut the world has bowed down to. For artificial intelligence certification in Delhi NCR one can sign up for a course at DexLab Analytics which might have the perfect machine Learning course in India for you.

 

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A Handbook of the Basic Data Types in Python 3: Strings

A Handbook of the Basic Data Types in Python 3: Strings

In general, a data type defines the format, sets the upper & lower bounds of the data so that a program could use it appropriately. Data types are the classification or categorization of data items which describes the character of a variable. The most used data types are numeric, non-numeric and Boolean (true/false).

Python has the following standard Data Types:

  • Booleans
  • Numbers
  • String
  • List
  • Tuple
  • Set
  • Dictionary

Mutable and Immutable Objects

Data objects of the above types are stored in a computer’s memory for processing. Some of these values can be modified during processing, but the contents of the others can’t be altered once they are created in the memory.

Number values, strings, and tuple are immutable, which means their contents can’t be altered after creation.

On the other hand, the collection of items in a List or Dictionary object can be modified. It is possible to add, delete, insert, and rearrange items in a list or dictionary. Hence, they are mutable objects.

Booleans

A Boolean is such a data type that almost every programming language has, and so does Python. Boolean in Python can have two values – True or False. These values can be used for assigning and comparison.

Numbers

Numbers are one of the most prominent Python data types. In Numbers, there are mainly 3 types which include Integer, Float, and Complex.

String

A sequence of one or more characters enclosed within either single quotes ‘or double quotes” is considered as String in Python. Any letter, a number or a symbol could be a part of the string. Multi-line strings can be represented using triple quotes,”’ or “””.

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List

Python list is an array-like construct which stores a heterogeneous collection of items of varied data typed objects in an ordered sequence. It is very flexible and does not have a fixed size. The Index in a list begins with a zero in Python.

Tuple

A tuple is a sequence of Python objects separated by commas. Tuples are immutable, which means tuples once created cannot be modified. Tuples are defined using parentheses ().

Set

A set is an unordered collection of items. Set is defined by values separated by a comma inside braces { }. Amongst all the Python data types, the set is one which supports mathematical operations like union, intersection, symmetric difference etc. Since the set derives its implementation from the “Set” in mathematics, so it can’t have multiple occurrences of the same element.

Dictionary

A dictionary in Python is an unordered collection of key-value pairs. It’s a built-in mapping type in Python where keys map to values. These key-value pairs provide an intuitive way to store data. To retrieve the value we must know the key. In Python, dictionaries are defined within braces {}.

This article is about one specific data type, which is a string. The String is a sequence of characters enclosed in single (”) or double quotation (“”) marks.

Here are examples of creating strings in Python.

Counting Number of Characters Using LEN () Function

The LEN () built-in function counts the number of characters in the string.

Creating Empty Strings

Although variables S3 and S4 do not contain any characters they are still valid strings. S3 and S4 both represent empty strings here.

We can verify this fact by using the type () function.

String Concatenation

String concatenation means joining one or more strings together. To concatenate strings in Python we use + operator.

String Repetition Operator (*)

Just like in numbers, * operator can also be used with strings. When used with strings * operator repeats the string n number of times. Its general format is: 1 string * n,

where n is a number of type int.

Membership Operators – in and not in

The in or not in operators are used to check the existence of a string inside another string. For example:

Indexing in a String

In Python, characters in a string are stored in a sequence. We can access individual characters inside a string by using an index.

An index refers to the position of a character inside a string. In Python, strings are 0 indexed. This means that the first character is at index 0; the second character is at index 1 and so on. The index position of the last character is one less than the length of the string.

To access the individual characters inside a string we type the name of the variable, followed by the index number of the character inside the square brackets [].

Instead of manually counting the index position of the last character in the string, we can use the LEN () function to calculate the string and then subtract 1 from it to get the index position of the last character.

We can also use negative indexes. A negative index allows us to access characters from the end of the string. Negative index starts from -1, so the index position of the last character is -1, for the second last character it is -2 and so on.

Slicing Strings

String slicing allows us to get a slice of characters from the string. To get a slice of string we use the slicing operator. Its syntax is:

str_name[start_index:end_index]

str_name[start_index:end_index] returns a slice of string starting from index start_index to the end_index. The character at the end_index will not be included in the slice. If end_index is greater than the length of the string then the slice operator returns a slice of string starting from start_index to the end of the string. The start_index and end_index are optional. If start_index is not specified then slicing begins at the beginning of the string and if end_index is not specified then it goes on to the end of the string. For example:

Apart from these functionalities, there are so many built-in methods for strings which make the string as the useful data type of Python. Some of the common built-in methods are as follows: –

capitalize ()

Capitalizes the first letter of the string

join (seq)

Merges (concatenates) the string representations of elements in sequence seq into a string, with separator string.

lower ()

Converts all the letters in a string that are in uppercase to lowercase.

max (str)

Returns the max alphabetical character from the string str.

min (str)

Returns the min alphabetical character from the string str.

replace (old, new [, max])

Replaces all the occurrences of old in a string with new or at most max occurrences if max gave.

 split (str=””, num=string.count(str))

Splits string according to delimiter str (space if not provided) and returns list of substrings; split into at most num substrings if given.

upper()

Converts lowercase letters in a string to uppercase.

Conclusion

So in this article, firstly, we have seen a brief introduction of all the data types of python. Later in this article, we focused on the strings. We have seen several Python operations on strings as well as the most common useful built-in methods of strings.

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