Machine learning has become a popular term as this advanced technology is full of immense potential. Before explaining the intuition behind machine learning let’s understand the meaning of the term first which is becoming so popular in this era of scientific innovation and is a trend that everybody wants to follow.
What is Machine Learning?
Machine learning if explained in a very layman language is a program running behind an application which has an ability to learn from what is sees and the errors that it makes and then tries to improve itself through trial and error. A programming language like Python and a method of calculation (statistics) is what helps propel this application in the right direction.
Now that you know what machine learning is, let’s discuss about what is the intuition behind building a machine learning algorithm or a program.
In my previous blog I have discussed about a statistical concept called Linear Regression which follows given a X independent variable, prediction of a Y dependent variable is possible if we understand the rate at which X and Y are changing and the direction towards which they are moving i.e. we understand the hidden pattern they are following, we will be able to predict the value of Y when X= 15.
In the process of all that, we need to reduce the error between the predicted Y and the observed Y which we had to train our model but this is not possible with only calculating the slope i.e. b1 a single time and this is where machine learning comes in handy.
The idea behind machine learning is to learn from the past mistakes and try to find the best possible coefficients i.e. b0 and b1 so that we are able to reduce the distance between predicted and observed y which leads to the minimization of error in predictions which we are making. This intuition remains the same throughout all the machine learning algorithms only the problem in question and the methodology to solve the problem changes.
Now let’s quickly look at the branches of Machine Learning.
Branches of Machine Learning
Supervised (Parametric) Machine Learning Algorithm:- Under this branch both the independent variable X and the dependent variable Y is given in the form of Y = f(X) and this branch can further be divided based on the kind of problem we are dealing with i.e. whether the variable Y is continuous or a category.
Unsupervised (Non-parametric) Machine Learning Algorithm:- Under this branch you do not have the Y variable i.e. Y ≠ f(X) and you can only solve classification problems.
Semi-Supervised Machine Learning Algorithms:- This is the most difficult to solve as under this kind of problem the data which is available for the analysis has missing values of Y which makes it quite difficult to train the algorithm as the possibility of false prediction is very high.
So, with that this discussion here on machine learning wraps up, hopefully, it helped you understand the intuition behind machine learning, also check out the video tutorial attached down the blog to learn more. The field of machine learning is full of opportunities, DexLab Analytics offers machine learning course in delhi ncr, keep on following the blog to enhance your knowledge as we continue to update it with interesting and informative posts for you.
If you are aware of the growth opportunities awaiting you in the Machine Learning domain, you must be in a rush to master the Machine Learning skills. Now, there are courses available that aim to sharpen the students with skills they would need to work in a challenging environment. However, some often prefer the self-study mode for developing knowledge in this highly specialized domain. No matter which way you prefer to learn, ultimately your passion and dedication would matter the most, because in both ways you need to put in the hard work and really toil hard to make any progress.
Is self-study a feasible option?
If you have already been through some course and want to go to the advanced level through self-study that’s a different issue, but, for those who are just starting out without any background in science, does it even make any sense to opt for self-study?
Given the way Machine Learning technology is moving fast and creating a demand for professionals with highly specialized industry knowledge, do you think self-study would be enough? Do you think a self-study plan to learn something you have no idea about would work? How much time would you need to devote? What should be your learning route? And how do you know this is the right path to follow?
Before we dive deeper into the discussion, we need to go through some prerequisites for Machine Learning study plan.
Machine learning is a broad field and assuming you are a beginner with no prior knowledge in this domain, you have to be familiar with mathematics, statistics, programming languages, meaning undergoing a Python certification training</strong>, must be proficient in data handling including analysis and modeling, you have to work on algorithms. So, can you pick up all of these skills one by one via self-study? Add to the list the latest Machine Learning tools and applications you need to grasp.
There will be help available in the form of:
There would be vast resources, in forms of e-books, lectures, video tutorials, most of these are free and easily accessible.
There are forums, groups out there which you can join and access help
You can take part in online competitions
Think it through. How long will it take for you to get from one stage to the next?
Even though there being no dearth of resources available you would be struggling with your progress and most importantly you would struggle to keep up with the pace the technology is moving ahead. Picking up a programming language, grasping and mastering concepts of linear algebra, probability, data is going to be a mammoth task.
What difference a certification course can make?
To begin with these courses are designed for people coming from different backgrounds, so, you having or, not having any prior knowledge in mathematics, statistics wouldn’t matter as you would be taught everything from scratch be it math or, Machine Learning Using Python.
The programs are designed for both working professionals as well as for beginners, all you need to do is choose the one that suits your specific level.
These courses are designed to transform you into an industry-ready professional and you would be under the guidance of professionals who are more than familiar with the nuances of the way the industry functions.
The modules would follow a strict schedule and your training path would be well planned out covering all the areas you need to master.
You would learn via hands-on training and get to handle projects. Nothing makes you skilled like hands-on training.
Your journey towards a smarter future needs to be through a well mapped-out path, so, be smart about it. DexLab Analytics offers industry-ready courses on Data Science, Machine Learning course in Gurgaon and AI with Python. Take advantage of the courses that are taught by instructors who have both expertise and experience. Time is indeed money, so, stop wasting time and get down to learning.
Artificial Intelligence or, AI is an advanced technology that is busy taking the world in its strides. With virtual assistants, face recognition, NLP, object detection, data crunching becoming familiar terms it is no wonder that this dynamic technology is being integrated into the very fabric of our society. Almost every sector is now adopting AI technology, be it running business operations or, ensuring error-free diagnosis in the healthcare domain, the exponential growth of this technology is pushing the demand for skilled AI professionals who can monitor and manage the AI operations of an organization.
Since AI is an expansive term and branches off in multiple directions, the job opportunities available in this field are also diverse. According to recent studies, AI jobs are going to be the most in-demand jobs in the near future. Multiple job roles are available that come with specific job responsibilities. So, let’s have a look at some of these.
Machine Learning Engineer
An machine learning engineer is supposed to be one of the most in-demand jobs available in this field, the basic job of an ML engineer center round working on self-running software, and they need to work with a huge pile of data. In an organization, the machine learning engineers need to collaborate with data scientists and ensure that real-time data is being put to use for churning out accurate results. They need to work with data science models and develop algorithms that can process the data and offer insight. Mostly their job responsibility revolves around working with current machine learning frameworks and working on it to make it better. Re-training machine learning models is another significant responsibility they need to shoulder.
If recent statistics are to be believed the salary of a machine learning hovers around ₹681,881 in India.
Artificial Intelligence Engineer
AI engineers are indeed a specialized breed of professionals who are in charge of AI infrastructure and work on AI models. They work on designing models and then test and finally, they need to deploy these models. Automating functionalities is also important and most importantly they must understand the key problems that need AI solutions. AI engineers need to write programs, so they need to be familiar with several programming languages, having a background in Machine Learning Using Python could be a big help. Another important responsibility is creating smart AI algorithms for developing an AI system, as per the specific requirement that needs to be solved using that system.
In India, an AI engineer could expect the salary to be around ₹7,86,105 per year, as per Glassdoor figures.
A data scientist is going to be in charge of the data science team and need to work on the huge volumes of data to analyze and extract information, build and combine models and employ machine learning, data mining, techniques along with utilizing numerous tools including visualization tools to help an organization reach its business goals. The data scientists need to work with raw data and he needs to be in charge of automating the collection procedure and most importantly they need to process and prepare data for further analysis, and present the insight to the stakeholders.
A data scientist could earn around ₹ 7,41,962 per year in India as per the numbers found on Indeed.
An AI architect needs to work with the AI architecture and assess the current status in order to ensure that the solutions are fulfilling the current requirements and would be ready to scale up to adapt to the changing set of requirements that would arise in the future. They must be familiar with the current AI framework that they need to employ to develop an AI infrastructure that is sustainable. Along with working with a large amount of data, an AI architect must be employing machine learning algorithms and posses a thorough knowledge of the product development, and suggest suitable applications and solutions.
In India an AI architect could expect to make around ₹3,567K per year as per Glassdoor statistics is concerned.
There are so many job opportunities available in the AI domain, and here only a few job roles have been described. There are plenty more diverse job opportunities await you out there, grab those, just get artificial intelligence certification in delhi ncr and be future-ready.
While dealing with data distribution, Skewness and Kurtosis are the two vital concepts that you need to be aware of. Today, we will be discussing both the concepts to help your gain new perspective.
Skewness gives an idea about the shape of the distribution of your data. It helps you identify the side towards which your data is inclined. In such a case, the plot of the distribution is stretched to one side than to the other. This means in case of skewness we can say that the mean, median and mode of your dataset are not equal and does not follow the assumptions of a normally distributed curve.
Positive skewness:- When the curve is stretched towards the right side more it is called a positively skewed curve. In this case mean is greater than median and median is the greater mode
Let’s see how we can plot a positively skewed graph using python programming language.
First we will have to import all the necessary libraries.
Then let’s create a data using the following code:-
In the above code we first created an empty list and then created a loop where we are generating a data of 100 observations. The initial value is raised by 0.1 and then each observation is raised by the loop count.
To get a visual representation of the above data we will be using the Seaborn library and to add more attributes to our graph we will use the Matplotlib methods.
In the above graph you can see that the data is stretched towards right, hence the data is positively skewed.
Now let’s cross validate the notion that whether Mean>Median>Mode or not.
Since each observation in the dataset is unique mode cannot be calculated.
Calculation of skewness:
In case we have the value of mode then skewness can be measured by Mode ─ Mean
In case mode is ill-defined then skewness can be measured by 3(Mean ─ Median)
To obtain relative measures of skewness, as in dispersion we use the following formula:-
When mode is defined:- When mode is ill-defined:-
To calculate positive skewness using Python programming language we use the following code:-
Negative skewness:- When the curve is stretched towards left side more it is called a negatively skewed curve. In this case mean is less than median and median is mode.
Now let’s see how we can plot a negatively skewed graph using python programming language.
Since we have already imported all the necessary libraries we can head towards generating the data.|
In the above code instead of raising the value of observation we are reducing it.
To visualize the data we have created again we will use the Seaborn and Matplotlib library.
The above graph is stretched towards left, hence it is negatively skewed.
To check whether Mean<Median<Mode or not again we will be using the following code:-
The above result shows that the value of mean is less than mode and since each observation is unique mode cannot be calculated.
Now let’s calculate skewness in Python.
Kurtosis is nothing but the flatness or the peakness of a distribution curve.
Platykurtic :- This kind of distribution has the smallest or the flattest peak.
Misokurtic:- This kind of distribution has a medium peak.
Leptokurtic:- This kind of distribution has the highest peak.
The video attached below will help you clear any query you might have.
In a world that is riveting towards exploring the hidden potential of emerging technologies like artificial intelligence, staying aware can not only keep you in sync but can also ensure your growth. Among all the tech terms doing the rounds now, machine learning is probably the one that you have heard frequently or, it might also be the term that intrigues you the most. You might even have a friend who is pursuing a Machine Learning course in Gurgaon. So, amidst all of this hoopla why don’t you upgrade your knowledge regarding machine learning? It’s not rocket science but, it’s science and it’s really cool!
Machine learning is a subset of AI that revolves round the concept of enabling a system to learn from the data automatically while finding patterns and improve the ability to predict without being explicitly programmed beforehand. One of the examples would be when you shop online from a particular site, you would notice product recommendations are lining up the page that particularly align with your preferences. The data footprint you leave behind is being picked up and analyzed to find a pattern and machine learning algorithms work to make predictions based on that, it is a continuous process of learning that simulate human learning process.
The same experience you would go through while watching YouTube, as it would present more videos based on your recent viewing pattern. Being such a powerful technology machine learning is gradually being implemented across different sectors and thereby pushing the demand for skilled personnel. Pursuing machine learning certification courses in gurgaon from a reputed institute, will enable an individual to pick up the nuances of machine learning to land the perfect career.
What are the different types of machine learning?
When we say machines learn, it might sound like a simple concept, but, the more you delve deeper into the topic to dissect the way it works you would know that there are more to it than meets the eyes. Machine learning could be divided into categories based on the learning aspect, here we will be focusing on 3 major categories which are namely:
Supervised learning as the name suggests involves providing the machine learning algorithm with training dataset, an example of sort to enable the system to learn to work its ways through to form the connection between input and output, the problem and the solution. The data provided for the training purposes needs to be correctly labeled so, that the algorithm is able to identify the relationship and could learn to predict output based on the input and upon finding errors could make necessary modifications. Post training when given a new dataset it should be able to analyze the input to predict a likely output for the new dataset. This basic form of machine learning is used for facial recognition, for classifying spams.
Again the term is suggestive like the prior category we discussed above, this is also the exact opposite of supervised learning as here there is no training data available to rely on. The input is available minus the output hence the algorithm does not have a reference to learn from. Basically the algorithm has to work its way through a big mass of unclassified data and start finding patterns on its own, due to the nature of its learning which involves parsing through unclassified data the process gets complicated yet holds potential. It basically involves clustering and association to work its way through data.
Reinforcement learning could be said to have similarity with the way humans learn through trial and error method. It does not have any guidance whatsoever and involves a reward, in a given situation the algorithm needs to work its way through to find the right solution to get to the reward, and it gets there by overcoming obstacles and learning from the errors along the way. The algorithm needs to analyze and find the best solution to maximize its rewards and minimize penalties as the process involves both. Video games could be an example of reinforcement learning.
Although only 3 core categories have been mentioned here, there remains other categories which deserve as much attention, such as deep learning. Deep learning too is a comparatively new field that deserves a complete discussion solely devoted to understanding this dynamic technology, focusing on its various aspects including how to be adept at deep learning for computer vision with python.
Machine learning is a highly potent technology that has the power to predict the future course of action, industries are waking up to smell the benefits that could be derived from implementation of ML. So, let’s quickly find out what some of the applications are:
Malware and spam filtering
You do not have to be tech savvy to understand what email spams are or, what malware is. Application of machine learning is refining the way emails are filtered with spams being detected and sent to a separate section, the same goes for malware detection as ML powered systems are quick to detect new malware from previous patterns.
Virtual personal assistants
As Alexa and Siri have become a part of life, we are now used to having access to our very own virtual personal assistants. However, when we ask a question or, give a command, ML starts working its magic as it gathers the data and processes it to offer a more personalized service by predicting the pattern of commands and queries.
Refined search results
When you put in a search query in Google or, any of the search engines the algorithms follow and learn from the pattern of the way you conduct a search and respond to the search results being displayed. Based on the patterns it refines the search results that impact page ranking.
Social media feeds
Whether it is Facebook or, Pinterest , the presence of machine learning could be felt across all platforms. Your friends, your interactions, your actions all of these are monitored and analyzed by machine learning algorithms to detect a pattern and prepare friend suggestions list. Automatic Friend Tagging Suggestions is another example of ML application.
Those were a couple of examples of machine learning application, but this dynamic field stretches far. The field is evolving and in the process creating new career opportunities. However, to land a job in this field one needs to have a background in Machine Learning Using Python, to become an expert and land the right job.
Artificial Intelligence is the key to the future of weather forecasting, a fact well known. But did you know it is also powering earthquake prediction the world over? Yes. Artificial Intelligence techniques like machine learning are gradually being enlisted in forecasting seismic activity.
While earthquake prediction has not yet become an exact science, efforts are on to make improvements and make forecasts reliable. For this, AI powered neural networks, the same technology behind the success of driverless cars and digital assistants, is being used to enhance research based on seismic data.
A report says that, “Scientists say seismic data is remarkably similar to the audio data that companies like Google and Amazon use in training neural networks to recognize spoken commands on coffee-table digital assistants like Alexa.”
When it comes to studying earthquakes, it is the computer, a fast and able machine, looking for patterns in mountains of data rather than relying on the weary eyes of a scientist. Also, instead of a sequence of words, what the computer is studying is a sequence of ground-motion measurements.
Scientists in the US have experimented with neural networks to accelerate earthquake analysis and the speed at which they were producing results and studies was 500 times faster than they could in the past. Also, AI is not only useful in studying earthquakes but it is being used in forecasting earthquake aftershocks as well.
In fact, researchers say it is a time of great scientific advancement, so much so, that “technology can do as well as — or better than — human experts”.
Geophysicist Paul Johnson’s team in the US has been studying earthquakes for quite some time now and it has made advancements in “using pattern-finding algorithms similar to those behind recent advances in image and speech recognition and other forms of artificial intelligence, (where) he and his collaborators successfully predicted temblors in a model laboratory system — a feat that has since been duplicated by researchers in Europe”, says a report.
Now Mr Johnson’s team has published a paper wherein artificial intelligence has been used to study slow slip earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest. While advancements are being made in the field of studying slow slip earthquakes, it is the bigger and more potent ones that really need to be studied. But they are rare. So the question remains – Will Machine Learning be able to analyse a small data set and predict with confidence the next big earthquake?
Researchers claim “that their (machine learning) algorithms won’t actually need to train on catastrophic earthquakes to predict them.” Studies conducted recently suggest “seismic patterns before small earthquakes are statistically similar to those of their larger counterparts”. So, a computer trained on hundreds and thousands of those small temblors might be able enough to predict the big ones.
Even as the coronavirus pandemic rages on and India is living through a strict lockdown to abate the spread of the novel virus, a disastrous spell of a plague of crop destroying locusts has struck Rajasthan, Gujarat and parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Threatening to balloon into an agrarian crisis, the destruction of crops on this scale is being seen as one “worst in decades”. In fact, such large scale breeding of locusts and an attack by them is the worst in 27 years, government officials said.
In such frightening circumstances, what we can truly bank upon to detect and fight locust attacks is advanced technology like machine learning techniques. This essay aims to demystify how machine learning can be used to detect locust breeding patterns by studying soil moisture through remote sensing.
A study called “Machine learning approach to locate desert locust breeding areas based on ESA CCI soil moisture” shows how researchers have “used two machine learning algorithms (generalized linear model and random forest) to evaluate the link between hopper presences and SM (Soil Moisture) conditions under different time scenarios…It was found that an area becomes suitable for breeding when the minimum SM values are over 0.07 m3 / m3 during 6 days or more. These results demonstrate the possibility to identify breeding areas in Mauritania by means of SM, and the suitability of ESA (European Space Agency) CCI (Climate Change Initiative) SM product to complement or substitute current monitoring techniques based on precipitation datasets.”
The study found that “it is widely assumed” that rainfall over 25 mm in two consecutive months is conducive to locust breeding. Likewise, various soil moisture conditions affect breeding patterns greatly. So, the study finds that it is important to have “variable creation as a previous step to modeling”. Different time intervals of locust breeding were tested by the researchers for model creation. Also, different soil moisture values were considered.
It was found that the “highest performance was acquired by the RF (Random Forest) algorithm when dividing the whole survey time into ranges of 6 days, and selecting the minimum SM as the variable value.” GLMs of Generalised Linear Models, however, did not work well according to the study.
The applied methodology of machine learning offers promising results to accurately identify breeding areas based on data pertaining to 30 years of SM values. The ESA CCI soil moisture data is one of the most authoritative ones in the world. Thus the researchers who conducted this study are confident that their results signify a breakthrough in locust monitoring technique prevalence in the world.
This study, thus, proposes a machine learning approach based on SM time series “to predict breeding areas, by means of remote sensing”. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning will help future researchers and scientists to study and produce better warning systems based on the results of this study. In this study only soil moisture data has been used but more variables like temperatures can also be taken into account to accurately predict breeding grounds in the future.
The Covid-19 pandemic has struck India like it has scores of countries across the world. As of May 27, over 1,51,000 Indians have been tested positive for the novel virus and over 4000 people have died due to the contagious disease. India has been under lockdown for over two months now in an attempt at abating the spread of the virus due to movement and contact.
With all offices closed and work from home decreed across numerous sectors of the economy, professionals have been forced to adapt to a new mode of work and training. With more time on hand since they are working from home, professionals are upgrading their skills by taking up online training modules and classes. A recent LinkedIn survey throws light on this phenomenon.
LinkedIn’s Work Force Confidence Index
India’s foremost social networking site that helps individuals network with professional peers and find jobs and appointments has conducted a survey called Work Force Confidence Index. As per the survey conducted between April 27 and May 3, “India’s professionals are logging learning hours for not just knowledge acquisition but also to increase productivity. About half of respondents from mid-market firms joined courses that help them manage time better, improve prioritisation or stay organised”.
93% respondents to upskill online in next two weeks
According to LinkedIn News India, 1040 professionals were surveyed by LinkedIn and 93% of them said “their time spent on e-learning will either increase or remain the same over the next two weeks”. Moreover, 60% of the respondents of which 74% were from the engineering domain said e-learning was a conduit to furthering industry knowledge. “Advancing in one’s career was a driver for 57% of all respondents and 3 in 10 active job seekers undertook e-learning to make a career pivot,” said LinkedIn News India.
What respondents learnt
Of the respondents, 45% said they hoped to learn to collaborate with peers through online learning in lockdown. Also, 43% said they wished to learn to manage time and prioritise and stay organised. Moreover, 40% said they hoped to learn something unrelated to work through online platforms. Becoming a leader and managing personal finances were pegged at 37% and 32% respectively by the study as goals and 24% said e-learning could actually lead to a change in career paths for them.
Advantages of e-learning
Travelling to work and back is taxing and time consuming. When you are working from home, you save on energy and time that can be used for something productive like e-learning training modules. They are easy on the pocket, accessible from absolutely anywhere you are and convenient to absorb and retain information and new things learnt. Moreover, there is a large online community to help you out with study material and guidance.
The world has seen a transformation in its economic activities since the coronavirus pandemic broke out. Economies have come to a grinding halt and manufacturing has dipped. Now what nations need is resilience and strength to carry on production in all sectors. What they are most depending on is the power of Artificial Intelligence to enhance the manufacturing process and help save money and drive down costs.
Here are some examples of how AI is powering the manufacturing sector in 2020.
AI is being used to transform machinery maintenance and quality in manufacturing operations today, according to Capgemini.
Caterpillar’s Marine Division is using machine learning to analyze data on how often its shipping equipment should be cleaned helping it save thousands of dollars.
The BMW Group is using AI to study manufacturing component images in and spot deviations from the standard production procedure in real-time.
In fact, a study shows that in the four earlier global economic downturns companies using AI were actually successful in increasing both sales and profit margins. Companies are all striving to utilize human experience, insights and AI techniques to give manufacturing a fillip in these times of a crisis.
Manufacturing using AI in real-time
Real-time monitoring of the manufacturing process is advantageous because it translates to sorting out production bottlenecks, tracking scrap rates and meeting customer deadlines among other things. The huge cache of data used can be utilized to build machine learning models.
Supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms can study multiple production shifts’ real-time data within seconds and predict processes, products, and workflow patterns that were not known before. A report suggests 29% of AI implementations in manufacturing are for maintaining machinery and production assets.
It was found that the most popular use of AI in manufacturing is predicting when equipment are likely to fail and suggesting optimal times to conduct maintenance. Companies like General Motors analyze images of its robots from cameras mounted above to spot anomalies and possible failures in the production line and thus preempt outages.
General Motors uses AI algorithms to give and produce optimized product design. General Motors can achieve the goal of rapid prototyping with the help of AI and ML algorithms. Designers provide definitions of the functional needs, raw materials, manufacturing methods and other constraints and the company along with AutoDesk has customized Dreamcatcher to optimize for weight and other vital criterion. In this way, AI comes together with human endeavor to produce a-class product designs that cost lesser.
Nokia has begun using a video application that takes the help of machine learning to alert an assembly operator if there are inconsistencies in the production process in one of its factories in Oulu, Finland. It alerts a machine operator about inconsistencies in the production of electronic items and this helps preempt poor production process and helps the company save on a lot of money and capital.
There are many other production processes AI is helping revolutionize. Only time will tell how much of AI will power the manufacturing sector. But this technological advancement is surely making an impact on economies worldwide. Meanwhile, for more details, do peruse the DexLab Analytics website. DexLab Analytics is a premiere machine learning institute in Gurgaon.