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The Math Behind Machine Learning: How it Works

The Math Behind Machine Learning: How it Works

It is evident that in the last few months, we have had several people showcase their enthusiasm about venturing into the world of data science using Machine Learning techniques. They are keen on probing the statistical regularities and building impeccable data-driven products. but we have made an observation that some may actually lack the necessary mathematical knowledge and intuition to get the framework for achieving results with data. And this is why we have decided to discuss this lacking through our blog.

In the recent times, there has been a noticeable upsurge in the availability of several easy-to-use machine and deep learning packages such as Weka, Tensorflow, scikit learn etc. But you must understand that machine learning as a field is one that has both statistical concepts, probabilistic concepts, computer science and algorithmic concepts to arise from learning intuitively from available data and also is about determining the patterns and hidden insights, which can be used to build intelligent applications. While still having the immense possibilities of Machine Learning and Deep Learning which is a thorough mathematical understanding of many of these techniques which is necessary for a good grasp of the internal workings of algorithms to achieve a good result.

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Why we must think about the math?

To explain why it is necessary to behind the scenes into the mathematical details of Machine Learning, we have put own a few important points:

  1. To choose the right algorithm which will include giving considerations, to accuracy, to the right training time, complexity of model, number of parameters and the number of features.
  2. To choose parameter settings and to validate the strategies
  3. To indentify the under-fitting and over-fitting by understanding the bias-variance trade off.
  4. For acquiring ample confidence about the interval and uncertainty

 The level of math one will need:

The primary question when one tries to understand an interdisciplinary field such as Machine Learning, is the amount of math needed and the level of math needed to understand these techniques.

The answer to this question is not as simple as it may seem and is multidimensional which, depends upon the level and interest of the individual. Research conducted in these mathematical formulations and theoretical advancements for Machine Learning is an ongoing process and a few researchers are already working on few more advanced techniques. However, we will state the least amount of math that is a must have skill for being a successful Machine learning Engineer/ Scientist is the importance of each and every mathematical concept.

Linear algebra:

This is the math skill to have for the 21st century. One must be well-versed with the topics of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Eigendecomposition of a matrix, LU Decomposition, QR Decomposition/Factorization, Symmetric Matrices, Orthogonalization & Orthonormalization, Matrix Operations, Projections, Eigenvalues & Eigenvectors, Vector Spaces as these norms are absolutely necessary for the understanding and the optimization methods for machine learning. The best thing about linear algebra is that there are a lot of online resources.

Probability theory and statistics:

Machine learning and statistics are not too different a field. And in reality some people have actually defined Machine Learning as “doing statistics on a Mac”. A few fundamentals that are a must have for machine learning are – Combinatorics, Probability Rules & Axioms, Bayes’ Theorem, Random Variables, Variance and Expectation, Conditional and Joint Distributions, Standard Distributions (Bernoulli, Binomial, Multinomial, Uniform and Gaussian), Moment Generating Functions, Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE), Prior and Posterior, Maximum a Posteriori Estimation (MAP) and Sampling Methods.

Multivariate calculus:

Differential and Integral Calculus, Partial Derivatives, Vector-Values Functions, Directional Gradient, Hessian, Jacobian, Laplacian and Lagragian Distribution are some of the necessary topics necessary for understanding ML.

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Algorithms and Complex Optimizations:

In order to realize the computational efficiency and scalability of our Machine Learning Algorithm and for exploiting the sparsity in the dataset, this concept is necessary. One must have knowledge of data structures such as Binary Trees, Hashing, Heap, Stack etc, and Dynamic Programming, Randomized & Sublinear Algorithm, Graphs, Gradient/Stochastic Descents and Primal-Dual methods.

A few other mathematical skills that are often necessary for understanding ML are the following Real and Complex Analysis (Sets and Sequences, Topology, Metric Spaces, Single-Valued and Continuous Functions, Limits), Information Theory (Entropy, Information Gain), Function Spaces and Manifolds.

Machine learning training in Gurgaon from experts with in-depth instruction on math skills is offered at DexLab Analytics. Check out our Machine learning certification brochure for the same at the website. 



Can Creative AI Predict The Future?

Can Creative AI Predict The Future?

Artificial Intelligence is reaching new heights, as the researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have come up with a program that can estimate the future. The machines can predict the possible events that may occur in a given scenario. The scientists have programmed the machines in such a manner that they can transform a still image into a video. However, the experiment is in its initial stage and researchers wish that it would just get better with time.

Predicting the future

According to the researchers at MIT, this computer can view an image and figure out what may happen next. To be able to do so, the data scientists have fed the computers with humungous amounts of images and videos. All the videos and images were similar in terms of category. For example, videos of sea waves and beaches of previous years were input into the machines. So, the next time, when the computer is shown an image of a sea beach, it automatically generated a video from the still, which replicated how waves are hitting the shore and people are playing in the water. Similar experiments were conducted using images of newborn babies, golf players, and train stations. And in each case, the computer produced videos resembling the expression of these babies, movement of the golf clubs and trains approaching towards the platforms, respectively.

Predicting the future

But how does this machine do it?

As soon as enormous amounts of data are fed into the machine, it starts learning just as humans can. In this experiment by MIT, computers became familiar with the happenings at a sea beach. Therefore, the next time it is shown the picture of a sea beach, the machine analysed the image and eventually, showed what happens there. However, the scientists say that these videos have certain limitations.

According to Carl Vondrick, a Ph.D. student at the MIT, “AI can be trained to produce output just like human beings. They can recall an event and more importantly, AI can predict the possible outcomes of the event based on past records.” Thus, the deep learning programs are able to spot the similarity in several events and make predictions according to the past results, which may not be accurate in many times. From another perspective, these AI generated videos are too short, as their duration does not exceed 1 second. Moreover, the videos seem like some animated movements created during the 90’s.

Despite such limitations, scientists are hopeful about the future of AI because this experiment was just the beginning and the results were better than what was estimated. Vondrick expressed his views on how AI can help us stop any negative incident from happening. He said, “A machine can study the movements of an old man, which may enable it to forecast whether the person has a chance of falling. In that case, adequate measures can be taken in order to prevent the accident.”

Progress of the AI

Progress of the AI

Apart from MIT, there are several companies including the search engine giant Google that are working on AI. At the Google Cultural Institute (GCI) in Paris, computers are programmed to create new images and art forms. The GCI has developed an application that helps users to search artworks from the dataset of several museums across the world. What is fascinating is that algorithms solely administer the entire app. It can search the dataset of almost 7 million images and artworks and provide search results that match the search criteria. The most important feature of the program is that the application can figure out the difference between the emotions embedded in different pictures.  It can differentiate a peaceful picture from the rest by analysing its content. In addition, this program, also known as the ‘Deep Dream Project’ can create artworks on its own, which adds to the creativity of AI. Google is also working on the ‘Magenta Project’, which has recently created a piano melody on its own. The duration of the melody is 90-seconds and it is the first tangible music sample ever produced by AI.

Therefore, we can find that AI is enabling the computers to make judgements based on their intuition and at the same time, they are developing a sense of creativity. Days are not far when human beings will depend on AI to make their next move.

To get into the depth of the prowess of AI, opt for Machine Learning course online. DexLab Analytics is a leading Machine Learning training institute in Gurgaon. Go through their course itinerary.


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