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Gradient Boosting In scikit-learn 0.22 For Handling Missing Values

Gradient Boosting In scikit-learn 0.22 For Handling Missing Values

A new tutorial session regarding the scikit-learn 0.22 is here and our sole focus is going to be updating your knowledge regarding the new features that have been added to this library. For this particular session we have decided to introduce you to the concept of gradient boosting that can handle the missing values. This concept is being introduced to clear out a previous misconception regarding the functioning of gradient boosting for this particular purpose.

The earlier notion surrounding GBM or, the gradient boosting algorithm in scikit-learn, was that it was unable to handle the missing values. In this tutorial we want to clarify that misconception, because, contrary to the notion XGBoost library or, XGB library is perfectly capable of handling the missing value analysis.  It has been found that XGB library performs better than the normal method taken to find the missing values.

Now getting back to the scikit-learn 0.22 way of solving the issue of missing values. There has been an enhancement in the algorithm gradient boosting due to which you no longer have to handle the missing values because it will handle it of itself.

So take a look at how the concept of native support for missing values for gradient boosting works.

The ensemble algorithm, ensemble.HistGradientBoostingClassifier and ensemble.HistGradientBoostingRegressor, both classification regression now have the power of native support for missing values or, (NaNs). This is indicative of the fact that there is no need now for imputing data during training or predicting.

To gain an insight into how you perform this you need to follow the complete code sheet that you can find here

 

Now, as you go through the code you will find the word enable, which might surprise you and make you question why it says enable here? Well, this is because it is still being developed.

So, basically all of the algorithms in the scikit-learn 0.22 that are under development process have to run an extra line of code that goes like enable_hist_gradient_boosting. After further development there won’t be any need of that.

The video attached below will further explain how the algorithm works.

There will be more informative tutorial sessions like this, so to stay updated keep following the DexLab Analytics blog.

Watch the video here.


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Machine Learning Tips From Amazon Web Services: What Are The Key Takeaways?

Machine Learning Tips From Amazon Web Services: What Are The Key Takeaways?

Machine learning is a subset of Artificial Intelligence, or, AI which draws from its past experiences to predict future action and act on it.  The growing demand for Machine Learning course in Gurgaon, is a clear pointer to the growth the field is experiencing.

If you have been on Youtube frequently then you would certainly have noticed, how it recognizes the choices you made during your last visit and it suggests results based on those past interactions.

The world of machine learning is way past its nascent stage and has found several avenues where its application has become manifold over the years. From predictive analysis to pattern recognition systems, Machine learning is being put to use for finding an array of solutions.

AWS has been a pioneer in the field as it embraced the technology almost 20 years back, recognizing its potential growth across all business verticals.

 At a recently held online tech conference, vice president of Amazon AI shared his concerns and ideas regarding the journey of ML while pointing out the hurdles still in the way and which need to be addressed.  Here are the key takeaways from the discussion

Growing need for Machine learning

Amazon was quick to realize a crucial fact in the very beginning that consumer experience is a crucial aspect of business which needs to get better with the application of ML.

Despite the impressive trajectory of machine learning and its growing application across different fields there are still issues which pose serious challenge. There are certain issues which if tackled properly would pave the way for a smarter future for all.

Get your data together

Businesses intent on building a machine learning strategy need to understand that they are missing a vital component of the model which is the data itself.  Setting out business objectives is not enough; machine learning model is basically built upon data. You need to feed the model data, accumulated over a period of time which it could analyze and to predict future action. 

Clarity regarding machine learning application

It is understood that you need to apply machine learning in order to find solutions, to do that you need to identify that particular area of your business where you need the solution. Once you have done that, you need clarity regarding data backup, applicability and impact on business. Swami Sivasubramaniam, vice president of Amazon AI at Amazon Web Services referred to these aspects as “three dimensions”.

Another point he stressed was regarding a collaboration between domain experts and machine learning teams.

Dearth of skill

Although there has been a quantum growth in the application of machine learning, there is a significant lack of trained personnel for handling machine learning models. Undergoing a Machine Learning course in Gurgaon, could bridge the skill gap.

Since, this sector is poised to grow, people willing to make a career should consider undergoing training.

In fact, organizations looking to implement machine learning model, should send their employees for corporate training programs offered at a premier MIS Training Institute in Delhi NCR.

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Avoid undifferentiated heavy lifting

Most companies tend to shift their focus from the job at hand and  according to Sivasubramaniam, starts dealing with issues like “server hosting, bandwidth management, contract negotiation…”, when they should only be concerned with making the model work for their business model and should look for cloud-based solutions for handling the rest of the issues.

Addressing these issues would only pave the way towards a brighter future where Machine learning would become an integral part of every business model.

Source: https://searchenterpriseai.techtarget.com/feature/How-to-build-a-machine-learning-model-in-7-steps

 


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Machine Learning Algorithms – With Python (Part II)

Machine Learning Algorithms – With Python (Part II)

In the first part of this blog, we covered Parametric and Non-Parametric Machine Learning algorithms and Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning Algorithms. If you haven’t gone through it yet, check it out here: dexlabanalytics.com/blog/machine-learning-algorithms-with-python-part-i

In this blog we are going learn about Semi Supervised Machine Learning algorithms.

What are Semi Supervised ML algorithms?

Those algorithms in which only half of the historical data’s target data has been specified are called semi-supervised algorithms. The way to go about solving this is by making a model on the basis of the portion of historical data that has the target specified and then apply this model to the rest of the data to predict the outcomes. Now, combine the two sets of data, get the target variable and make a model on the basis of this target variable.

New Nomenclature

In the equation Y= B0 + B1X, Y is called the Target Variable while in statistics it is called the Dependent Variable. And X is called Features or Attributes whereas in statistics it is called Independent Variable. B0 and B1 are called Weights while in statistics they are called Coefficients (Intercept and Slope, respectively).

In the equation Ÿ – Y = error, the error in statistics is called Residual but in Machine Learning it is called Cost Function. And the elements of the historical data set that in statistics are known as Records or Observations, in machine learning are known as Instances.

What is Bias Variance Trade-Off?

In parametric algorithms like linear regressions, several assumptions are made before building a model. These assumptions can be things like having only those inputs that have a relationship with the target variable or the fact that the error should be random.  The benefit of this process is the fact that Ÿ or the predicted results are consistent and there is not much variance in them.

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Now, if we are to take a Decision Tree or any other non-parametric Machine Learning algorithm, a small change in the data set forces a large variance in the Target variable. But, unlike in parametric ML algorithms, there are no basic assumptions in non-parametric assumptions. So, in such a case, the error or mean square error, is a combination of the square of bias and variance.

MSE = Bias2 + Variance

Increasing any one (the square of the bias) will lead to a decrease in the other (variance) and vice versa.

In this case, we need to balance or trade off the two – the square of the bias and the variance.

While the bias cannot be changed much, we can control the variance by increasing or decreasing the parameters of the experiment.

What is Overfitting and Underfitting?

Overfitting is the condition when the accuracy figure of the ‘trained’ data set is larger in number than the accuracy figure of the ‘tested’ unseen data set. This is an undesirable condition. Underfitting is the opposite wherein the accuracy figure of the trained data is lower than that of the tested unseen data. This is also undesirable. What we seek to aim at is an equal accuracy in both the tested and trained models.

To limit Overfitting we must –

  • Use a resampling technique to estimate model accuracy by repeating experiments with the data and then drawing an average of the accuracy figures.
  • Hold back a validation data set to test your model on and increase the number of models to experiment on the trained data set.

We would like to conclude out second part of this tutorial here. For more on this, visit the third blog on Machine Learning Algorithms with Python.

(Translated from 28:00 – 1:19:00)

 


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ROC-AUC-for-Multi-Class-Classification-Release Highlights for Scikit-learn 0.22

ROC-AUC-for-Multi-Class-Classification-Release Highlights for Scikit-learn 0.22

Today we are going to learn about the new releases from Scikit-learn version 0.22, a machine learning library in Python. We, through this video tutorial, aim to learn about the much talked about new release wherein ROC-AUC curve supports Multi Class Classification. Prior to this version, Scikit-learn did not have a function to plot the ROC curve.

To access our previous tutorial on the plotting of the ROC curve, click here.

The ROC-AUC score function can also be used in multi-class classification. Two averaging strategies are currently supported: the one-vs-one (OvO) algorithm computes the average of the pairwise ROC AUC scores and the one-vs-rest (OvR) algorithm computes the average of the ROC AUC scores for each class against all other classes.

In both cases, the multiclass ROC AUC scores are computed from probability estimates that a sample belongs to a particular class according to the model. The OvO and OvR algorithms support weighting uniformly (average=’macro’) and weighting by prevalence (average=’weighted’).

To begin with, we import multi classification, SVC and roc_auc_score. Then we specify the number of classes we want in the multi-classification function. Then we apply the SVC function and finally the roc_auc_score one. This function will give us the probable prediction for all the classes and we will then choose the one that has the highest probability. When we run it we get a ROC_AUC score of 0.99.

The code sheet is provided in a Github repository here.

 

For more on this do watch the video attached herewith. This tutorial was brought to you by DexLab Analytics. DexLab Analytics is a premiere Machine Learning institute in Gurgaon.

Watch the video here.


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How Artificial Intelligence Powers Earthquake Prediction

How Artificial Intelligence Powers Earthquake Prediction

Artificial Intelligence is the key to the future of weather forecasting, a fact well known. But did you know it is also powering earthquake prediction the world over? Yes. Artificial Intelligence techniques like machine learning are gradually being enlisted in forecasting seismic activity.

While earthquake prediction has not yet become an exact science, efforts are on to make improvements and make forecasts reliable. For this, AI powered neural networks, the same technology behind the success of driverless cars and digital assistants, is being used to enhance research based on seismic data.

Neural Networks

A report says that, “Scientists say seismic data is remarkably similar to the audio data that companies like Google and Amazon use in training neural networks to recognize spoken commands on coffee-table digital assistants like Alexa.”

When it comes to studying earthquakes, it is the computer, a fast and able machine, looking for patterns in mountains of data rather than relying on the weary eyes of a scientist. Also, instead of a sequence of words, what the computer is studying is a sequence of ground-motion measurements.

Studying Aftershocks
Image Source: cbs8.com

Studying Aftershocks

Scientists in the US have experimented with neural networks to accelerate earthquake analysis and the speed at which they were producing results and studies was 500 times faster than they could in the past. Also, AI is not only useful in studying earthquakes but it is being used in forecasting earthquake aftershocks as well.

In fact, researchers say it is a time of great scientific advancement, so much so, that “technology can do as well as — or better than — human experts”.

Artificial Intelligence
Image Source: smithsonianmag.com

Artificial Intelligence

Geophysicist Paul Johnson’s team in the US has been studying earthquakes for quite some time now and it has made advancements in “using pattern-finding algorithms similar to those behind recent advances in image and speech recognition and other forms of artificial intelligence, (where) he and his collaborators successfully predicted temblors in a model laboratory system — a feat that has since been duplicated by researchers in Europe”, says a report.

Now Mr Johnson’s team has published a paper wherein artificial intelligence has been used to study slow slip earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest. While advancements are being made in the field of studying slow slip earthquakes, it is the bigger and more potent ones that really need to be studied. But they are rare. So the question remains – Will Machine Learning be able to analyse a small data set and predict with confidence the next big earthquake?

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Machine Learning 

Researchers claim “that their (machine learning) algorithms won’t actually need to train on catastrophic earthquakes to predict them.” Studies conducted recently suggest “seismic patterns before small earthquakes are statistically similar to those of their larger counterparts”. So, a computer trained on hundreds and thousands of those small temblors might be able enough to predict the big ones.

For more on artificial intelligence, and its varied applications, do peruse the DexLab Analytics website today. DexLab Analytics is a premier institute in India offering Machine Learning courses in Delhi.

 


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ROC-Curve-New-Plotting-API-Release Highlights for Scikit-learn 0.22

ROC-Curve-New-Plotting-API-Release Highlights for Scikit-learn 0.22

Today we are going to learn about the new releases from Scikit-learn version 0.22, a machine learning library in Python. We, through this video tutorial, aim to learn about the much talked about new release called Plotting API. Prior to this version, Scikit-learn did not have a function to plot the ROC curve.

A new plotting API is available for creating visualizations. The new API allows for quickly adjusting the visuals of a plot without involving any recomputation. It is also possible to add different plots to the same figure. In this tutorial we are going to study the plotting of the ROC curve.

The code sheet is provided in a Github repository here.

 

We will attempt to plot the ROC curve on two different algorithms and compare which one is a better function. First we choose to make a classification data. Then we go on to plot the ROC curve using SVC classifier and then further plot the curve using a random forest classifier.

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

For more on this do watch the video attached herewith. This tutorial was brought to you by DexLab Analytics. DexLab Analytics is a premiere Machine Learning institute in Gurgaon.


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How AI is Powering Manufacturing in 2020

How AI is Powering Manufacturing in 2020

The world has seen a transformation in its economic activities since the coronavirus pandemic broke out. Economies have come to a grinding halt and manufacturing has dipped. Now what nations need is resilience and strength to carry on production in all sectors. What they are most depending on is the power of Artificial Intelligence to enhance the manufacturing process and help save money and drive down costs.

Here are some examples of how AI is powering the manufacturing sector in 2020.

  • AI is being used to transform machinery maintenance and quality in manufacturing operations today, according to Capgemini.
  • Caterpillar’s Marine Division is using machine learning to analyze data on how often its shipping equipment should be cleaned helping it save thousands of dollars.
  • The BMW Group is using AI to study manufacturing component images in and spot deviations from the standard production procedure in real-time.

In fact, a study shows that in the four earlier global economic downturns companies using AI were actually successful in increasing both sales and profit margins. Companies are all striving to utilize human experience, insights and AI techniques to give manufacturing a fillip in these times of a crisis.

Manufacturing using AI in real-time

Real-time monitoring of the manufacturing process is advantageous because it translates to sorting out production bottlenecks, tracking scrap rates and meeting customer deadlines among other things. The huge cache of data used can be utilized to build machine learning models.

Supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms can study multiple production shifts’ real-time data within seconds and predict processes, products, and workflow patterns that were not known before. A report suggests 29% of AI implementations in manufacturing are for maintaining machinery and production assets.

Detecting Outages

It was found that the most popular use of AI in manufacturing is predicting when equipment are likely to fail and suggesting optimal times to conduct maintenance. Companies like General Motors analyze images of its robots from cameras mounted above to spot anomalies and possible failures in the production line and thus preempt outages.

Optimizing Design

General Motors uses AI algorithms to give and produce optimized product design. General Motors can achieve the goal of rapid prototyping with the help of AI and ML algorithms. Designers provide definitions of the functional needs, raw materials, manufacturing methods and other constraints and the company along with AutoDesk has customized Dreamcatcher to optimize for weight and other vital criterion. In this way, AI comes together with human endeavor to produce a-class product designs that cost lesser.

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Inconsistencies

Nokia has begun using a video application that takes the help of machine learning to alert an assembly operator if there are inconsistencies in the production process in one of its factories in Oulu, Finland. It alerts a machine operator about inconsistencies in the production of electronic items and this helps preempt poor production process and helps the company save on a lot of money and capital.

There are many other production processes AI is helping revolutionize. Only time will tell how much of AI will power the manufacturing sector. But this technological advancement is surely making an impact on economies worldwide. Meanwhile, for more details, do peruse the DexLab Analytics website. DexLab Analytics is a premiere machine learning institute in Gurgaon.

 


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5 Chatbots You Should Know About

5 Chatbots You Should Know About

Chatbots or “conversational agents” are software applications that mimic or imitate written or spoken human speech for the purposes of facilitating a conversation or interaction with a human being.

These applications have become one of the most ubiquitous software applications out there with the advancement of machine learning technology and NLP.

“Today’s chatbots are smarter, more responsive, and more useful – and we’re likely to see even more of them in the coming years… chatbots are used most commonly in the customer service space, assuming roles traditionally performed by living, breathing human beings such as Tier-1 support operatives and customer satisfaction reps.”

Conversational agents are becoming a common occurrence partly due to the fact that barriers to entry in creating chatbots such as sophisticated programming knowledge have become redundant.

How Chatbots work

The crux of chatbot technology is natural language processing or NLP, the same technology “that forms the basis of the voice recognition systems used by virtual assistants such as Google Now, Apple’s Siri, and Microsoft’s Cortana.” “Chatbots process the text presented to them by the user…infer what they mean and/or want, and determine a series of appropriate responses based on this information.”

Here are 5 companies using chatbots for various roles like marketing, communicating with marginalized groups and patients suffering from sleeplessness and memory loss.

Endurance

Russian technology company Endurance developed a companion chatbot to help dementia patients cope with decreased verbal ability. Many patients with Alzheimer’s disease use the chatbot to converse with. In turn, the chatbot identifies deviations in conversational patterns of the patient that might indicate a problem with memory and recollection.

Casper

Casper’s Insomnobot 3000 is a conversational agent that aims to help insomniacs by posing as a companion to talk to while the rest of the world sleeps. However, at this point, “Insomnobot 3000 is a little rudimentary.”

UNICEF

International child advocacy nonprofit UNICEF is using chatbots to help people living in developing countries speak out about the most urgent needs in their communities. The bot, named U-Report, focuses on large-scale data gathering via polls. UNICEF then uses feedback as the basis for potential policy recommendations.

MedWhat

This chatbot aims at making medical diagnoses faster, easier, and more transparent for both patients and physicians. MedWhat is powered by a highly sophisticated machine learning system that offers increasingly accurate responses to user questions based on behaviors that it “learns” by interacting with human beings. Also, it acts as a repository of a vast source of medical journals and medical advice.

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Roof Ai

Roof Ai is a chatbot that helps real-estate marketers to “automate interacting with potential leads and lead assignment via social media”. The bot identifies potential leads via social media and responds immediately, irrespective of the time of the day. “Based on user input, Roof Ai prompts potential leads to provide a little more information, before automatically assigning the lead to a sales agent.”

To learn more about machine learning powered technology, follow DexLab Analytics. DexLab Analytics is a premiere institute for Machine Learning training in Gurgaon.

 


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A Guide to Free Ebooks on Statistics and Machine Learning

A Guide to Free Ebooks on Statistics and Machine Learning

Machine Learning is an acquired knowledge science. It has to be taught and studied. For this, it is imperative to have the best books on the subject at hand. However, most books on the subject are expensive and not easily accessible. This is only fair given the amount of hard word that goes into writing these books.

In a situation this critical, it is best to rely on the good old Internet for assistance. There are some good Samaritans who have chosen to make their works freely available to all. Here is a great guide to free ebooks available online so you can brush up on your concepts and be industry ready at the earliest.

Think Stats – Probability and Statistics for Programmers by Allen B Downey

For the free ebook click here http://www.greenteapress.com/thinkstats.

This is an introduction to statistics and probability for those who have a basic grounding in Python programming. “It’s based on a Python library for probability distributions (PMFs and CDFs). To make things easier for the reader, most of the exercises have short programs,” says a report.

Bayesian Reasoning and Machine Learning by David Barber

For the free ebook click here http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/D.Barber/textbook/091117.pdf.

When it comes to Bayesian statistics, this book is a classic. “This takes a Bayesian statistics approach to machine learning.”This is a book worth checking out for anyone getting into the machine learning field and trying to make a career out of the subject.

An Introduction to Statistical Learning by Gareth James, Daniela Witten, Trevor Hastie and Robert Tibshirani

For the free ebook click here http://faculty.marshall.usc.edu/gareth-james.

This popular entry is an introduction to data science through machine learning. “This book gives clear guidance on how to implement statistical and machine learning methods for newcomers to this field. It’s filled with practical real-world examples of where and how algorithms work. For those with an inclination towards R programming, this book even has practical examples in R.”

Understanding Machine Learning by ShaiShalev-Shwartz and Shai Ben-David

For the free ebook click here https://www.cse.huji.ac.il/~shais/UnderstandingMachineLearning/index.html.

“This book gives a structured introduction to machine learning. It looks at the fundamental theories of machine learning and the mathematical derivations that transform these concepts into practical algorithms. Following that, it covers a list of ML algorithms, including…stochastic gradient descent, neural networks, and structured output learning.”

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A Programmer’s Guide to Data Mining by Ron Zacharski

For the free ebook click here http://guidetodatamining.com.

This book has chapters covering recommendation systems. “It takes a…visually entertaining look at social filtering and item-based filtering methods and how to use machine learning to implement them. Other concepts like Naive Bayes and Clustering are also covered. There is a chapter on Unstructured Text and how to deal with it, in case you are thinking about getting into Natural Language Processing. Examples in Python are also available in case you want to practice.”

For more on Machine Learning do peruse the DexLab Analytics website. DexLab Analytics is a premiere institute offering Machine Learning courses in Delhi.

 


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