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Data Driven Projects: 3 Questions That You Need to Know

Data Driven Projects: 3 Questions That You Need to Know

Today, data is an asset. It’s a prized possession for companies – it helps derive crucial insights about customers, thus future business operations. It also boosts sales, predicts product development and optimizes delivery chains.

Nevertheless, several recent reports suggest that even though data floats around in abundance, a bulk of data-driven projects fail. In 2017 alone, Gartner highlighted 60% of big data projects fail – so what leads it? Why the availability of data still can’t ensure success of these projects?

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Right data, do I have it?

It’s best to assume the data which you have is accurate. After all, organizations have been keeping data for years, and now it’s about time they start making sense out of it. The challenge that they come across is that this data might give crucial insights about past operations, but for present scenario, they might not be good enough.

To predict the future outcomes, you need fresh, real-time data. But do you know how to find it? This question leads us to the next sub-head.

Where to find relevant data?

Each and every company does have a database. In fact, many companies have built in data warehouses, which can be transformed into data lakes. With such vast data storehouses, finding data is no more a difficult task, or is it?

Gartner report shared, “Many of these companies have built these data lakes and stored a lot of data in them. But if you ask the companies how successful are you doing predictions on the data lake, you’re going to find lots and lots of struggle they’re having.”

Put simply, too many data storehouses may pose a challenge at times. The approach, ‘one destination for all data in the enterprise’ can be detrimental. Therefore, it’s necessary to look for data outside the data warehouses; third party sources can be helpful or even company’s partner network.

How to combine data together?

Siloed data can be calamitous. Unsurprisingly, data is available in all shapes and is derived from numerous sources – software applications, mobile phones, IoT sensors, social media platforms and lot more – compiling all the data sources and reconciling data to derive meaningful insights can thus be extremely difficult.

However, the problem isn’t about the lack of technology. A wide array of tools and software applications are available in the market that can speed up the process of data integration. The real challenge lies in understanding the crucial role of data integration. After all, funding an AI project is no big deal – but securing a budget to address the problem of data integration efficiently is a real challenge.

In a nutshell, however data sounds all promising, many organizations still don’t know how achieve full potential out of data analytics. They need to strengthen their data foundation, and make sure the data that is collected is accurate and pulled out from a relevant source.

A good data analyst course in Gurgaon can be of help! Several data analytics training institutes offer such in-demand skill training course, DexLab Analytics is one of them. For more information, visit their official site.

The blog has been sourced fromdataconomy.com/2018/10/three-questions-you-need-to-answer-to-succeed-in-data-driven-projects

 

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Best Data Science Interview Questions to Get Hired Right Away

Best Data Science Interview Questions to Get Hired Right Away

Data scientists are big data ninjas. They tackle colossal amounts of messy data, and utilize their imposing skills in statistics, mathematics and programming to collect, manage and analyze data. Next, they combine all their analytic abilities – including, industry expertise, encompassing knowledge and skepticism to unravel integral business solutions of meaningful challenges.

But how do you think they become such competent data wranglers? Years of experience or substantial pool of knowledge, or both? In this blog, we have penned down the most important interview data questions on data science – it will only aid you crack tough job interviews but also will test your knowledge about this promising field of study.

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What do you mean by data science?

Data is a fine blend of statistics, technical expertise and business acumen. Together they are used to analyze datasets and predict the future trend.

Which is more appropriate for text analytics – R or Python?

Python includes a very versatile library, known as Pandas, which helps analysts use advanced level of data analysis tools and data structures. R doesn’t have such a feature. Therefore, Python is the one that’s highly suitable for text analytics.

Explain a Recommender System.

Today, a recommender system is extensively deployed across multiple fields – be it music recommendations, movie preferences, search queries, social tags, research and analysis – the recommender system works on a person’s past to build a model to predict future buying or movie-viewing or reading pattern in the individual.

What are the advantages of R?

  • A wide assortment of tools available for data analysis
  • Perform robust calculations on matrix and array
  • A well-developed yet simple programming language is R
  • It supports an encompassing set of machine learning applications
  • It poses as a middleman between numerous tools, software and datasets
  • Helps in developing ace reproducible analysis
  • Offers a powerful package ecosystem for versatile needs
  • Ideal for solving complex data-oriented challenges

What are the two big components of Big Data Hadoop framework?

HDFS – It is the abbreviated form of Hadoop Distributed File System. It’s the distributed database that functions over Hadoop. It stores and retrieves vast amounts of data in no time.

YARN – Stands for Yet Another Resource Negotiator. It aims to allocate resources dynamically and manage workloads.

How do you define logistic regression?

Logistic regression is nothing but a statistical technique that analyzes a dataset and forecasts significant binary outcomes. The outcome has to be in either zero or one or a yes or no.

How machine learning is used in real-life?

Following are the real-life scenarios where machine learning is used extensively:

  • Robotics
  • Finance
  • Healthcare
  • Social media
  • Ecommerce
  • Search engine
  • Information sharing
  • Medicine

What do you mean by Power Analysis?

Power analysis is best defined as the process of determining sample size required for determining an impact of a given size from a cause coupled with a certain level of assurance. It helps you understand the sample size estimate and in the process aids you in making good statistical judgments.

To get an in-depth understanding on data science, enroll for our intensive Data Science Certification – the course curriculum is industry-standard, backed by guaranteed placement assistance.

The blog has been sourced fromintellipaat.com/interview-question/data-science-interview-questions

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Citizen Data Scientists: Who Are They & What Makes Them Special?

Citizen Data Scientists: Who Are They & What Makes Them Special?

Companies across the globe are focusing their attention on data science to unlock the potentials of their data. But, what remains crucial is finding well trained data scientists for building such advanced systems.

Today, a lot many organizations are seeking citizen data scientists – though the notion isn’t something new, the practice is fairly picking up pace amongst the industries. Say thanks to a number of factors, including perpetual improvement in the quality of tools and difficulty in finding properly skilled data scientists!

Gartner, a top notch analyst firm has been promoting this virgin concept for the past few years. In 2014, the firm predicted that the total number of citizen data scientists would expand 5X faster than normal data scientists through 2017. Although we are not sure if the number forecasted panned out right but what we know is that the proliferating growth of citizen data scientists exceeded our expectations.

Recently, Gartner analyst Carlie Idoine explained a citizen data scientist is one who “creates or generates models that use advanced diagnostic analytics or predictive and prescriptive capabilities, but whose primary job function is outside the field of statistics and analytics.” They are also termed as “power users”, who’ve the ability to perform cutting edge analytical tasks that require added expertise. “They do not replace the experts, as they do not have the specific, advanced data science expertise to do so. But they certainly bring their OWN expertise and unique skills to the process,” she added.

Of late, citizen data scientists have become critical assets to an organization. They help businesses discover key big data insights and in the process are being asked to derive answers from data that’s not available from regular relational database. Obviously, data can’t be queried through SQL, either. As a result, citizen data scientists are found leveraging machine learning models that end up generating predictions from a large number of data types. No wonder, SQL always sounds effective, but Python statistical libraries and Jupyter notebooks helps you further.

 A majority of industries leverages SQL; it has been data’s lingua franca for years. The sheer knowledge of how to write a SQL query to unravel a quiver of answers out of relational databases still remains a crucial element of company’s data management system as a whole lot of business data of companies are stored in their relational databases. Nevertheless, advanced machine learning tools are widely gaining importance and acceptance.

A wide array of job titles regarding citizen data scientists exists in the real world, and some of them are mutation of business analyst job profile. Depending on an organization’s requirements, the need for experienced analysts and data scientists varies.

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DataRobot, a pioneering proprietary data science and machine learning automation platform developer is recently found helping citizen data scientists through the power of automation. “There’s a lot happening behind the scenes that folks don’t realize necessarily is happening,” Jen Underwood, a BI veteran and the recently hired DataRobot’s director of product marketing said. “When I was doing data science, I would run one algorithm at a time. ‘Ok let’s wait until it ends, see how it does, and try another, one at a time.’ [With DataRobot] a lot of the steps I was taking are now automated, in addition to running the algorithms concurrently and ranking them.”

To everyone’s knowledge, Big Data Analytics is progressing, capabilities that were once restricted within certain domains of professionals are now being accessible by a wider pool of interested parties. So, if you are interested in this new blooming field of opportunities, do take a look at our business analyst training courses in Gurgaon. They would surely help you in charting down a successful analyst career.

 

The blog has been sourced fromdatanami.com/2018/08/13/empowering-citizen-data-science

 

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The Big Data Driven Future of Fashion: How Data Influences Fashion

The Big Data Driven Future of Fashion: How Data Influences Fashion

Big Data is revolutionizing every industry, including fashion. The nuanced notion of big data is altering the ways designers create and market their clothing. It’s not only aiding designers in understanding customer preferences but also helps them market their products well. Hadoop BI is one of the potent tools of technology that provides a wide pool of information for designers to design range of products that will sell.

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How Does the Mechanism Work?

Large sets of data help draw patterns and obviously trends play a crucial role across the fashion industry. In terms of nature, fashion and trends both are social. Irrespective of the nature of data, structured or unstructured, framing trends and patterns in the fashion industry leads to emerging ideas, strategies, shapes and styles, all of which ushers you into bright and blooming future of fashion.

What Colors To Choose For Your Line?

KYC (Know Your Customer) is the key here too. A fashion house must know which colors are doing rounds amongst the customers. Big data tells a lot about which color is being popular among the customers, and based on that, you can change your offerings subject to trend, style picks and customer preferences.

Men’s or Women’s Clothing: Which to Choose?

Deciding between men’s or women fashion is a pivotal point for any designer. Keep in mind, target demographic for each designer is different, and they should know who will be their prospective customers and who doesn’t run a chance.

Big data tool derive insights regarding when customers will make purchases, how large will be the quantity and how many items are they going to buy. Choosing between men’s and women’s fashion could make all the difference in the world.

Arm yourself with business analyst training courses in Gurgaon; it’s high time to be data-friendly.

Transforming Runway Fashion into Retail Merchandise

Launching a brand in the eyes of the public garners a lot of attention, and the designs need to be stellar. But, in reality the fashion that we often see on runways is rarely donned by the ordinary customers; because, the dresses and outfits that are showcased on the ramp are a bit OTT, thus altered before being placed in the stores. So, big data aids in deciphering which attires are going to be successful, and which will fail down the line. So, use the power of big data prudently and reap benefit, unimaginable across the global retail stores.

Deciding Pricing of the Product

As soon as the garbs leave the runway, they are tagged with prices, which are then posted inside the stores, after analyzing how much the customers are willing to pay for a particular product. For averaging, big data is a saving grace. Big data easily averages the prices, and decides a single mean price, which seems to be quite justifiable.

However, remember, while pricing, each garments are designed keeping in mind a specified customer range. Attires that are incredibly expensive are sold off to only a selected affluent user base, while the pricing of items that are designed for general public are pegged down. Based on previous years’ data, big data consultants can decide the pricing policy so that there’s something for all.

The world of fashion is changing, and so is the way of functioning. From the perspective of fashion house owner, collect as much data as possible of customers and expand your offerings. Big data analytics is here to help you operate your business and modify product lines that appeals to the customers in future.

And from the perspective of a student, to harness maximum benefits from data, enroll in a data analyst course in Gurgaon. Ask the consultants of DexLab Analytics for more deets.

 

The article has been sourced from

channels.theinnovationenterprise.com/articles/8230-big-data-hits-the-runway-how-big-data-is-changing-the-fashion-industry

iamwire.com/2017/01/big-data-fashion-industry/147935

bbntimes.com/en/technology/big-data-is-stepping-into-the-fashion-world

 

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FAQs before Implementing a Data Lake

FAQs before Implementing a Data Lake

Data Lake – is a term you must have encountered numerous times, while working with data. With a sudden growth in data, data lakes are seen as an attractive way of storing and analyzing vast amounts of raw data, instead of relying on traditional data warehouse method.

But, how effective is it in solving big data related problems? Or what exactly is the purpose of a data lake?

Let’s start with answering that question –

What exactly is a data lake?

To begin with, the term ‘Data Lake’ doesn’t stand for a particular service or any product, rather it’s an encompassing approach towards big data architecture that can be encapsulated as ‘store now, analyze later’. In simple language, data lakes are basically used to store unstructured or semi-structured data that is derived from high-volume, high-velocity sources in a sudden stream – in the form of IoT, web interactions or product logs in a single repository to fulfill multiple analytic functions and cases.

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What kind of data are you handling?

Data lakes are mostly used to store streaming data, which boasts of several characteristics mentioned below:

  • Semi-structured or unstructured
  • Quicker accumulation – a common workload for streaming data is tens of billions of records leading to hundreds of terabytes
  • Being generated continuously, even though in small bursts

However, if you are working with conventional, tabular information – like data available from financial, HR and CRM systems, we would suggest you to opt for typical data warehouses, and not data lakes.

What kind of tools and skills is your organization capable enough to provide?

Take a note, creating and maintaining a data lake is not similar to handling databases. Managing a data lake asks for so much more – it would typically need huge investment in engineering, especially for hiring big data engineers, who are in high-demand and very less in numbers.

If you are an organization and lack the abovementioned resources, you should stick to a data warehouse solution until you are in a position of hiring recommended engineering talent or using data lake platforms, such as Upsolver – for streamlining the methods of creating and administering cloud data lake without devoting sprawling engineering resources for the cause.

What to do with the data?

The manner of data storage follows a specific structure that would be suitable for a certain use case, like operational reporting but the purpose for data structuring leads to higher costs and could also put a limit to your ability to restructure the same data for future uses.

This is why the tagline: store now, analyze later for data lakes sounds good. If you are yet to make your mind whether to launch a machine learning project or boost future BI analysis, a data lake would fit the bill. Or else, a data warehouse is always there as the next best alternative.

What’s your data management and governance strategy?

In terms of governance, both data warehouses and lakes pose numerous challenges – so, whichever solution you chose, make sure you know how to tackle the difficulties. In data warehousing, the potent challenge is to constantly maintain and manage all the data that comes through and adding them consistently using business logic and data model. On the other hand, data lakes are messy and difficult to maintain and manage.

Nevertheless, armed with the right data analyst certification you can decipher the right ways to hit the best out of a data lake. For more details on data analytics training courses in Gurgaon, explore DexLab Analytics.

 

The article has been sourced from — www.sisense.com/blog/5-questions-ask-implementing-data-lake

 

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5 Trends Shaping the Future of Data Analytics

5 Trends Shaping the Future of Data Analytics

Data Analytics is popular. The future of data science and analytics is bright and happening. Terms like ‘artificial intelligence’ and ‘machine learning’ are taking the world by storm.

Annual demand for the fast-growing new roles of data scientist, data developers, and data engineers will reach nearly 700,000 openings by 2020, says Forbes, a leading business magazine.

 

Last year, at the DataHack Summit Kirk Borne, Principal Data Scientist and Executive Advisor at Booz Allen Hamilton shared some slivers of knowledge in the illuminating field of data science. He believes that the following trends will shape up the world of data analytics, and we can’t agree more.

Dive down to pore over a definitive list – thank us later!

Internet of Things (IoT)

Does IoT ring any bell? Yes, it does, because it’s nothing but evolved wireless networks. The market of this fascinating new breed of tech is expected to grow from $170.57 billion in 2017 to $561.04 billion by 2022 – reasons being advanced analytics and superior data processing techniques.

Artificial Intelligence

An improved version of AI is Augmented Intelligence – instead of replacing human intelligence, this new sophisticated AI program largely focuses on AI’s assistive characteristic, enhancing human intelligence. The word ‘Augmented’ stands for ‘to improve’ and together it reinforces the idea of amalgamating machine intelligence with human conscience to tackle challenges and form relationships.

Augmented Reality

Look forward to better performances and successful models? Data is the weapon of all battles. Augmented Reality is indeed a reality now. The recent launch of Apple ARkit is a pivotal development in bulk manufacturing of AR apps. The power of AR is now in the fingertips of all iPhone users, and the development of Google’s Tango is an added thrust.

Hyper Personalization

#KnowYourCustomer, it has become an indispensable part of today’s retail marketing; the better you know your customers, the higher are the chances of selling a product. Yes, you heard that right. And Google Home and Amazon Echo is boosting the ongoing operations.

Graph Analytics

Mapping relationships across wide volumes of well connected critical data is the essence of graph analytics. It’s an intricate set of analytics tools used for unlocking insightful questions and delivering more accurate results. A few use cases of graph analytics is as follows:

  • Optimizing airline and logistic routes
  • Extensive life science researches
  • Influencer analysis for social network communities
  • Crime detection, including money laundering

 
Advice: Be at the edge of data accumulation – because data is power, and data analytics is the power-device.

Calling all data enthusiasts… DexLab Analytics offers state of the art data analytics training in Gurgaon within affordable budget. Apply now and grab amazing discounts and offers on data analyst course.

 

The article has been sourced from – yourstory.com/2017/12/data-analytics-future-trends

 

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A Comprehensive Study on Analytics and Data Science India Jobs 2018

A Comprehensive Study on Analytics and Data Science India Jobs 2018

India accounts for 1 in 10 data science job openings worldwide – with about 90,000 vacancies, India ranks as the second-biggest analytics hub, next to the US – according to a recent study compiled by two renowned skilling platforms. The latest figure shows a 76% jump from the last year.

With the advent of artificial intelligence and its overpowering influence, the demand for skill-sets in machine learning, data science and analytics is increasing rapidly. Job creation in other IT fields has hit a slow-mode in India, making it imperative for people to look towards re-skilling themselves with new emerging technologies… if they want to stay relevant in the industry. Some newer roles have also started mushrooming, with which we are not even acquainted now.

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Top trends in analytics jobs in 2018 as follows:

  • The total number of data science and analytics jobs nearly doubled from 2017 to 2018.
  • There’s been a sharp contrast in the percentage increase of analytics job inventory in the past years – from 2015 to 2016, the number of analytics jobs increased by 52%, which increased by only 40% from 2014 to 2015.
  • Currently, if we go by the reports, nearly 50000 analytics job positions are currently available to get filled by suitable candidates. Although the exact numbers are difficult to ascertain.
  • Amazon, Goldman Sachs, Citi, E&Y, Accenture, IBM, HCL, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG and Capgemini – are 10 top-tier organizations with the highest number of analytics opening in India.

City Figures

Bengaluru is the IT hub of India and accounts for the largest share of the data science and analytics jobs in India. Approximately, it accounted for 27% of jobs till the quarter of the last year.

Tier-II cities also witnessed a surging trend in such roles from 7% to 14% in between 2017 and 2018 – as startups started operating out of these locations.

Delhi/NCR ranks second contributing 22% analytics jobs in India, followed by Mumbai with 17%.

Industry Figures

Right from hospitality, manufacturing and finance to automobiles, job openings seem to be in every sector, and not just limited to hi-tech industries.

Banking and financial sector continued to be the biggest job drivers in analytics domain. Almost 41% of jobs were posted from the banking sector alone, though the share fell from last year’s 46%.

Ecommerce and media and entertainment followed the suit and contributed to analytics job inventory. Also, the energy and utilities seem to have an uptick in analytics jobs, contributing to almost 15% of all analytics jobs, 4% hike from the last year’s figure.

Education Requirement Figures

In terms of education, almost 42% of data analytics job requirements are looking for a B.Tech or B.E degree in candidates. 26% of them prefer a postgraduate degree, while only 10% seeks an MBA or PGDM.

In a nutshell, 80% of employers resort to hiring analytics professionals who have an engineering degree or a postgraduate degree.

As a result, Data analyst course has become widely popular. It’s an intensive, in-demand skill training that is intended for business, marketing and operations managers, data analyst and professionals and financial industry professionals. Find a reputable data analyst training institute in Gurgaon and start getting trained from the experts today.

 

The article has been sourced from:

https://qz.com/1297493/india-has-the-most-number-of-data-analytics-jobs-after-us

https://analyticsindiamag.com/analytics-and-data-science-india-jobs-study-2017-by-edvancer-aim

 

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An ABC of Apache Spark Streaming

Estimator Procedure under Simple Random Sampling: EXPLAINED

Apache Spark has become one the most popular technologies. It is accompanied with a powerful streaming library, which has quite a few advantages over other technologies. The integration of Spark streaming APIs with Spark core APIs provides a dual purpose real-time and batch analytical platform. Spark Streaming can also be combined with SparkSQL, SparkML and GraphX when complex cases need to be handled. Famous organizations that prevalently use Spark Streaming are Netflix, Uber and Pinterest. Spark Streaming’s fame in the world of data analytics can be attributed to its fault tolerance, ability to process live streams, scalability and high throughput.

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Need for Streaming Analytics:

Companies generate enormous amounts of data on a daily basis. Transactions happening over the internet, social network platforms, IoT devices, etc. generate large volumes of data that need to be leveraged in real-time. And this process shall gain more important in future. Entrepreneurs consider real-time data analysis as a great opportunity to scale up their businesses.

Spark streaming intakes live data streams, Spark engine processes and divides it and the output is in the form of batches.

Architecture of Spark Streaming:

Spark streaming breaks the data stream into micro batches (known as discretize stream processing). First of all, the receivers accept data in parallel and hold it in worker nodes as buffer. Then the engine runs brief tasks and sends the result to other systems.

Spark tasks are allocated to workers dynamically, that depends on the resources available and the locality of data. The advantages of Spark Streaming are many, including better load balancing and speedy fault recovery. Resilient distributed dataset (RDD) is the basic concept behind fault tolerant datasets.

Useful features of Spark streaming:

Easy to use: Spark streaming supports Java, Scala and Python and uses the language integrated API of Apache Spark for stream processing. Stream jobs can be written in a similar manner in which batch jobs are written.

Spark Integration: Since Spark streaming runs on Spark, it can be utilized for addressing unplanned queries and reusing similar codes. Robust interactive applications can also be designed.

Fault tolerance: Work that has been lost can be recovered without additional coding from the developer.

Benefits of discretized stream processing:

Load balancing: In Spark streaming, the job load is balanced across workers. While, some workers handle more time-consuming tasks, others process tasks that take less time. This is an improvement from traditional approaches where one task is processed at a time. This is because if the task is time-taking then it behaves like a bottle neck and delays the whole pipeline.

Fast recovery: In many cases of node failures, the failed operators need to be restarted on different nodes. Recomputing lost information involves rerunning a portion of the data stream. So, the pipeline gets halted until the new node catches up after the rerun. But in Spark, things work differently. Failed tasks can be restarted in parallel and the recomputations are distributed across different nodes evenly. Hence, recovery is much faster.

Spark streaming use cases:

Uber: Uber collects gigantic amounts of unstructured data from mobile users on a daily basis. This is converted to structured data and sent for real time telemetry analysis. This data is analyzed in an ETL pipeline build using Spark streaming, Kafka and HDFS.

Pinterest: To understand how Pinterest users are engaging with pins globally, it uses an ETL data pipeline to provide information to Spark through Spark streaming. Hence, Pinterest aces the game of showing related pins to people and providing relevant recommendations.

Netflix: Netflix relies on Spark streaming and Kafka to provide real-time movie recommendations to users.

Apache foundation has been inaugurating new techs, such as Spark and Hadoop. For performing real-time analytics, Spark streaming is undoubtedly one of the best options.

As businesses are swiftly embracing Apache Spark with all its perks, you as a professional might be wondering how to gain proficiency in this promising tech. DexLab Analytics, one of the leading Apache Spark training institutes in Gurgaon, offers expert guidance that is sure to make you industry-ready. To know more about Apache Spark certification courses, visit Dexlab’s website.

This article has been sources from: https://intellipaat.com/blog/a-guide-to-apache-spark-streaming-tutorial

 

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An ABC Guide to Sampling Theory

An ABC Guide to Sampling Theory

Sampling theory is a study involving collection, analysis and interpretation of data accumulated from random samples of a population. It’s a separate branch of statistics that observes the relationship existing between a population and samples drawn from the population.

In simple terms, sampling means the procedure of drawing a sample out of a population. It aids us to draw a conclusion about the characteristics of the population after carefully studying only the objects present in the sample.

Here we’ve whisked out a few sampling-related terms and their definitions that would help you understand the nuanced notion of sampling better. Let’s have a look:

Sample – It’s the finite representative subset of a population. It’s chosen from a population with an aim to scrutiny its properties and principles.

Population – When a statistical investigation focuses on the study of numerous characteristics involving items on individuals associated with a particular group, this group under study is known as the population or the universe. A group containing a finite number of objects is known as finite population, while a group with infinite or large number of objects is called infinite population.

Population parameter – It’s an obscure numerical factor of the population. It’s no brainer that the primary objective of a survey is to find the values of different measures of population distribution; and the parameters are nothing but a functional variant inclusive of all population units.

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Estimator – Calculated based on sample values, an estimator is a functional measure.

Sampling fluctuation of an estimator – When you draw a particular sample from a given population, it contains different set of population members. As a result, the value of the estimator varies from one sample to another. This difference in values of the estimator is known as the sampling fluctuations of an estimator.

Next, we would like to discuss about the types of sampling:

There are mainly two types of random sampling, and they are as follows:

Simple Random Sampling with Replacement

In the first case, the ‘n’ units of the sample are drawn from the population in such a way that at each drawing, each of the ‘n’ numbers of the population gets the same probability 1⁄N of being selected. Hence, this methods is called the simple random sampling with replacement, clearly, the same unit of population may occur more than once inj a simple. Hence, there are N^n samples, regard being to the orders in which ‘n’ sample unit occur and each such sample has the probability 1/N^n .

Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement

In the second case each of the ‘n’ members of the sample are drawn one by one but the members once drawn are not returned back to the population and at each stage remaining amount of the population is given the same probability of being includes in the sample. This method of drawing the sample is called SRSWOR therefore under SRSWOR at any r^th number of draw there remains (N-r+1) units. And each unit has the probability of 1/((N-r+1) ) of being drawn.

Remember, if we take ‘n’ individuals at once from a given population giving equal probability to each of the observations, then the total number of possible example in (_n^N)C i.e.., combination of ‘n’ members out of ‘N’ numbers of the population will from the total no. of possible sample in SRSWOR.

The world of statistics is huge and intensively challenging. And so is sampling theory.

But, fret now. Our data science courses in Noida will help you understand the nuances of this branch of statistics. For more, visit our official site.

P.S: This is our first blog of the series ‘sampling theory’. The rest will follow soon. Stay tuned.

 

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